George Massey Tunnel
|Descending into the Massey Tunnel|
|Route||British Columbia Highway 99|
|Opened||May 23, 1959|
|Owner||British Columbia Toll Highways and Bridge Authority(original)
British Columbia Ministry of Transportation
|Number of lanes||4|
|Water Depth||22 metres|
The George Massey Tunnel (often referred to simply as the Massey Tunnel) is a highway traffic tunnel in the Metro Vancouver region of southwestern British Columbia. It is located approximately 20 km (12 mi) south of the city centre of Vancouver, British Columbia, and approximately 30 km (20 mi) north of the Canada-U.S. Border at Blaine, Washington.
Construction, costing approximately $25 million, began on the tunnel in March 1957, and it was opened to traffic on May 23, 1959, as the Deas Island Tunnel. Queen Elizabeth II attended the official opening ceremony of the tunnel on July 15, 1959. It carries a four lane divided highway under the south arm of the Fraser River estuary, joining the City of Richmond to the north with the Corporation of Delta (a municipality) to the south. It is the only road tunnel below sea level in Canada, making its roadway the lowest road surface in Canada.
The tunnel forms part of Highway 99. It is named for Nehamiah "George" Massey, a former Member of the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia. He represented Delta between 1956 and 1960, and was a long-time advocate of a permanent crossing to replace an existing ferry that crossed the south arm of the Fraser River. The tunnel was renamed the George Massey Tunnel in 1967, three years after George Massey died. It is still sometimes referred to by its previous name, the Deas Island Tunnel. As of 2013[update], public consultations are taking place regarding replacement of the tunnel.
The tunnel is a single tube that is subdivided with a concrete wall, each side containing two traffic lanes. The typical traffic flow has two northbound lanes in the east tube and two southbound lanes in the west tube. In 1989 a counterflow system was introduced to meet increasing traffic demand in the tunnel.
At peak rush traffic periods, a reversible lane system is used, with a series of swing gates deployed reducing traffic in one direction to a single lane, while increasing the other direction to three lanes. Morning rush has three lanes northbound (inbound to Vancouver) and evening rush has three southbound lanes (outbound from Vancouver).
Construction, Maintenance and Replacement
The 629 m (2,063 ft) long tunnel is made up of six precast concrete sections (length: 105 m, 345 ft; height: 7 m, 23 ft; width: 23 m, 75 ft). This was the first tunnel to use this precast construction method in North America. The sections were floated into position by barge and then sunk into a shallow trench that had been dug into the loose sand and silt of the river bed. The trench and tunnel sections were then covered over with a protective layer of rock - 500 pound stones filled 50 feet (15 m) out on each side, plus a bed of 1,500 pound stone on top. A structure located at each end of the tunnel houses the main ventilation and pumping equipment. Concrete retaining walls make up the approaches, which extend out about 400 m (¼ mi) from the ventilation buildings. At its lowest point the roadway is about 22 metres (72 ft) below sea level, making it the lowest section of roadway in Canada. The Fraser River flows into the Strait of Georgia about 5 kilometres (3 mi) downstream from the tunnel.
Due to the tunnel being designed and constructed in the 1950s, very little consideration was given to seismic factors. The river bed is a 600 m (2,000 ft) thick layer of sediment on top of bedrock. This sedimentary layer may liquefy during a major earthquake,  , leaving the tunnel with nothing to rest on, and thus vulnerable to total collapse. In recent years, as the awareness of the effect of serious seismic activity developed, an engineering assessment and subsequent retrofit project was initiated to increase the survivability of the tunnel in the event of a significant earthquake. This retrofit project started in the fall of 2004 and had been completed by the spring of 2006.
The tunnel was constructed for the British Columbia Toll Highways and Bridge Authority, and is now administered by the British Columbia Ministry of Transportation. It has not had a toll on it since the 1960s, when tolls were removed from all of the bridges and tunnels in the Lower Mainland (although tolls are now collected on the Golden Ears Bridge, completed in 2009, and on the Port Mann bridge, completed in 2012). The initial toll was 25 cents; in 1964, George Massey became the last person to pay the toll, which was then one dollar.
On February 16, 2006, it was reported that the provincial government had plans to expand the tunnel's capacity, from four lanes to six, dubbed the "H99" project. There has been no progress on this score and contradictory government statements since then, so future upgrade are an uncertain prospect.
On September 28, 2012, Premier Christy Clark announced plans to replacing the aging tunnel within 10 years, addressing the congestion and safety issues currently plaguing the structure. On November 21, 2012, it was announced that the Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure is leading a multi-stage planning initiative, including seeking public input on replacement options for the George Massey Tunnel to determine a number of options for its replacement.  
On September 20 2013, Premier Christy Clark announced that construction on a new bridge to replace the George Massey Tunnel will begin in 2017.
Non-Motorized Tunnel Use
The tunnel is illegal for cyclists or pedestrians to traverse. A limited fare-free shuttle service is available year-round, during certain hours,and can carry tandems. Cyclists must wait at prescribed pickup points, but the van will make more than one trip if there are more than 7 bicycles.  Translink also provides year around regular bus service through the tunnel with standard two bike carrying racks. However, the lack of sufficient rack space translates to long waits for cyclists during peak hours. Cycling advocates have long advocated for improvement to this facility, as it is a major choke point limiting Vancouver to Tsawwassen Ferry bicycle traffic.
The tunnel has a posted height limit of 4.15m (13.6ft) in both directions. There are no current plans to modify the tunnel or provide a warning system for over-height vehicles as, according to the British Columbia Ministry of Transportation over-height accidents "only happen once or twice a year".
- Satellite photo of George Massey Tunnel from Google Maps
- "Prefab Tunnel Conquers A Tough River" , March 1959, Popular Mechanics detailed article on what was then the Deas Island Tunnel
- Vancouver Sun Article - Twinned Tunnel Part of Victoria's Plan
- Buckand and Taylor Bridge Engineering, George Massey Tunnel project
- George Massey Tunnel Bicycle Shuttle
- Videos of the construction of the George Massey Tunnel - courtesy of the Delta Optimist
- Kenaidan Seismic Retrofit Project
- Journal of Commerce article on tunnel
- "Predicting Liquefaction Response of Granular Soils from Pressuremeter Tests".
- "The Persistent Tunnel “Vision” of British Columbia’s George Massey". June 12, 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-25.
- "Deas Island Tunnel Traffic Cams".
- "Chronology: 1959-JUL-15".
- "Twinned tunnel part of Victoria's long-term plan". Feb 16, 2006. Retrieved 2012-09-04.
- "Premier Announces Investments in Capital Projects, Transportation Infrastructure". Sept 28, 2012.
- "Massey Tunnel replacement consultations begin". Nov 21, 2012.
- "George Massey Tunnel Replacement official website". Nov 21, 2012.
- "George Massey Tunnel Bicycle Shuttle Information Page". BC MOTI. Retrieved 2012-08-03.
- Rees, Stephen. "Stephen Rees Blog tagged Massey Tunnel Posts". Retrieved 2012-08-03.
- "CKNW report no plan for tunnel height upgrade". CKNW News 1130. Retrieved 2012-08-03.