Globidens

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Globidens
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous
Globidens dakotensis.jpg
Skull of G. dakotensis (bottom view) in the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago.
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Family: Mosasauridae
Tribe: Globidensini
Genus: Globidens
Gilmore, 1912
Species
  • G. alabamaensis (Type)
    Gilmore, 1912
  • G. dakotensis Russell, 1975
  • G. phosphaticus Bardet and Pereda-Suberbiola, 2005
  • G. timorensis Huene, 1935
  • G. schurmanni Martin, 2007

Globidens ("Globe teeth") is an extinct genus of mosasaur lizard.

Globidens alabamaensis was first described by Gilmore (1912). A second species (G. dakotensis) was described by Russell (1975). The third North American species (G. schurmanni) was added by Martin (2007)

Description[edit]

Life restoration of G. alabamaensis

Globidens was ~6 m (20 ft) in length and in appearance very much like other mosasaurs (streamlined body with flippers, a laterally flattened tail and powerful jaws). The teeth of Globidens were vastly different from other mosasaurs, as they were globular, as suggested in its generic name. Generally, most mosasaurs had sharp teeth evolved to grab soft, slippery prey like fish and squid, which, in later species, were later modified to rend flesh, as well. While many other mosasaurs were capable of crushing the shells of ammonites, none were as specialized in dealing with armored prey like Globidens. Globidens, unlike most other mosasaurs, had semispherical teeth with rounded nubbin-like points, which were much better suited for crushing tough armored prey like small turtles, ammonites, nautili, and bivalves. Like its larger relative, Mosasaurus, Globidens had a robustly built skull with tightly-articulating jaws. Such features no doubt played a large role in its ability to penetrate the armor of its shelled prey.

Classification[edit]

Lateral and oblique, medial view of the left maxilla of G. alabamaensis

The smaller genus Carinodens is regarded as a sister taxon of Globidens.

Cladogram of mosasaurs and related taxa modified from Aaron R. H. Leblanc, Michael W. Caldwell and Nathalie Bardet, 2012:[1]

Mosasaurinae

Dallasaurus turneri





Clidastes liodontus



Clidastes moorevillensis



Clidastes propython





"Prognathodon" kianda




Globidens alabamaensis



Globidens dakotensis



Mosasaurini

Eremiasaurus heterodontus




Plotosaurus bennisoni




Mosasaurus conodon



Mosasaurus hoffmanni



Mosasaurus missouriensis







"Prognathodon" rapax




Plesiotylosaurus crassidens




Prognathodon overtoni




Prognathodon saturator




Prognathodon waiparaensis




Prognathodon solvayi



Prognathodon currii













Species[edit]

  • Globidens alabamaensis Gilmore, 1912
  • G. dakotaensis Russell, 1975
  • G. phosphaticus Bardet et al. 2005[2]

Misassigned species[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Aaron R. H. Leblanc, Michael W. Caldwell and Nathalie Bardet (2012). "A new mosasaurine from the Maastrichtian (Upper Cretaceous) phosphates of Morocco and its implications for mosasaurine systematics". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 32 (1): 82–104. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.624145. 
  2. ^ Bardet, N., Pereda Suberbiola, X., Iarochène, M., Amalik M., and Bouya, B. 2005. Durophagous Mosasauridae (Squamata) from the Upper Cretaceous phosphates of Morocco, with description of a new species of Globidens. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences / Geologie en Mijnbouw, 84(3), p. 167-176.
  3. ^ Zdansky, O. 1935. The occurrence of mosasaurs in Egypt and in Africa in general. Bulletin de l’Institut d’Egypte 17: 83-94.
  4. ^ T. Lingham-Soliar. 1991. Mosasaurs from the Upper Cretaceous of Niger. Palaeontology 34(3):653-670
  • Everhart, M.J. 2008. Rare occurrence of a Globidens sp. (Reptilia; Mosasauridae) dentary in the Sharon Springs Member of the Pierre Shale (Middle Campanian) of Western Kansas. p. 23-29 in Farley G. H. and Choate, J.R. (eds.), Unlocking the Unknown; Papers Honoring Dr. Richard Zakrzewski, Fort Hays Studies, Special Issue No. 2, 153 p., Fort Hays State University, Hays, KS.[page needed]
  • Gilmore, Charles W. 1912. A new mosasauroid reptile from the Cretaceous of Alabama, Proceedings U.S. National Museum, 40(1870): 489-484, 3 fig., pl. 39-40 (Description of Globidens alabamaensis type)
  • Huene, E. von. 1935. Mosasaurier-Zähne von Timor. Centralblatt fur Mineralogie. Geologic und Palaeontologie; in Verbindung mit dens Neuen Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie, Geologie und Palaeontologie. Stuttgart. Abt. B 10 412-416, 3 figs. (in German)
  • Martin, J. E. 2007. A new species of the durophagous mosasaur, Globidens (Squamata: Mosasauridae) from the Late Cretaceous Pierre Shale Group of central South Dakota, USA. Pages 167-176 in Martin, J. E. and Parris D. C. (eds.), The Geology and Paleontology of the Late Cretaceous Marine Deposits of the Dakotas. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 427. (Globidens schurmanni)
  • Russell, Dale A. 1975. A new species of Globidens from South Dakota. Fieldiana Geology, 33(13): 235-256. (Field Museum of Natural History)