Golden Week (Japan)
|Date||April 29, May 3-5|
- April 29
- May 3
- May 4
- May 5
Note that "kokumin no kyūjitsu" or "citizen's holiday" is a generic term for any official holiday. May 4 was until 2007 an unnamed but official holiday because of a rule that converts any day between two holidays into a new holiday. May Day is not a public holiday. Instead, Japan has Labour Thanksgiving Day, a holiday with a similar purpose. When a public holiday lands on a Sunday, the next day that is not already a holiday becomes a holiday for that year. In some cases, a Compensation Holiday (振替休日 Furikae Kyūjitsu?) is held on either April 30 or May 6 should any of the Golden Week holidays fall on Sunday; 2012, 2013, and 2014, have had Compensation Holidays for Shōwa Day, Children's Day, and Greenery Day, respectively, and 2015 will have Constitution Memorial Day fall on Sunday, requiring another consecutive year with a Compensation Holiday.
The National Holiday Laws, promulgated in July 1948, declared nine official holidays. Since many were concentrated in a week spanning the end of April to early May, many leisure-based industries experienced spikes in their revenues. The film industry was no exception. In 1951, the film Jiyū Gakkō recorded higher ticket sales during this holiday-filled week than any other time in the year (including New Year's and Obon). This prompted the managing director of Daiei Film Co., Ltd. to dub the week "Golden Week" based on the Japanese radio lingo “golden time,” which denotes the period with the highest listener ratings. At the time, April 29 was a national holiday celebrating the birth of the Shōwa Emperor. Upon his death in 1989, the day was renamed "Greenery Day." In 2007, Greenery Day was moved to May 4, and April 29 was renamed Shōwa Day to commemorate the late Emperor.
Many Japanese nationals take paid time off during this holiday, and some companies are closed down completely and give their employees time off. Golden Week is the longest vacation period of the year for many Japanese jobs. Two other Japanese holidays are observed for most or all of a week: Japanese New Year in January and Obon Festival in August. Golden Week is an extremely popular time to travel. Flights, trains, and hotels are often fully booked despite significantly higher rates at this time. Popular destinations in Asia, Guam, Saipan, Hawaii, and major cities on the West Coast of North America (such as Los Angeles, Seattle, San Diego, San Francisco, and Vancouver), and many European and Australian cities are visited during these holidays by huge numbers of Japanese tourists.