Gottbegnadeten list

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Friedrich Kayssler one of the "irreplacable actors" on the list

The Gottbegnadeten list ("God-gifted list" or "Important Artist Exempt List") was a 36-page list of artists considered crucial to Nazi culture. The list was assembled in September 1944 by Joseph Goebbels, the head of the Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda, and Germany's chancellor Adolf Hitler.

History[edit]

The list exempted the designated artists from military mobilisation during the final stages of World War II. A total of 1,041 names of artists, architects, music conductors, singers, writers and filmmakers appeared on the list. Of that number, 24 were named as especially indispensable. They thus became the equivalent of National Socialism's "national treasures."

Goebbels included about 640 motion picture actors, writers and directors on an extended version of the list. They were to be protected as part of his propaganda film efforts, which persisted through the end of the war (and culminating in the expensive final UFA production Kolberg, released in January 1945).

Many of the cultural figures appearing on the list are no longer widely remembered but there are exceptions, including a number of renowned classical musicians such as the composers Richard Strauss, Hans Pfitzner, Carl Orff and Norbert Schultze, the orchestral conductors Wilhelm Furtwängler and Herbert von Karajan, and the Wagnerian baritone Rudolf Bockelmann. Each listed artist received a letter from the Nazi Propaganda Ministry which certified his or her status. The only foreigner (Ausländer) on the list was Dutch actor Johannes Heesters.[1]

Special listed artists[edit]

Architects[edit]

Visual artists[edit]

Authors[edit]

Composers[edit]

Carl Orff, aquatint etching
1918 portrait of Strauss by Max Liebermann

Actors[edit]

Singers[edit]

Further listed artists on the "Führerliste"[edit]

There was also an extended list, the so-called "Führerliste" that included "God-gifted artists" who were not to be drafted but worked as "Künstler im Kriegseinsatz" (artists in the war effort).

Authors[edit]

Composers[edit]

Conductors[edit]

Instrumentalists[edit]

Theater and Opera[edit]

Fine Arts[edit]

Special film-list initiated by Goebbels[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Klee, Ernst (2007). Das Kulturlexikon zum Dritten Reich: Wer war was vor und nach 1945. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer. p. 227. ISBN 978-3-10-039326-5.  (German)