|This article relies largely or entirely upon a single source. (August 2012)|
Grenade launchers can either come in the form of standalone weapons (either single-shot or repeating) or attachments mounted under the barrel of a rifle. Some rifles have been designed to fire rifle grenades, either from their muzzle or from a detachable muzzle-mounted launcher. Larger grenade launchers may be mounted on vehicles...
|This section requires expansion with: Add more historical information. (February 2010)|
Most grenade launchers as of 2012[update] are man-portable, shoulder-fired weapons issued on a squad level, though larger launchers are sometimes mounted on armored vehicles. The most common grenade-round in use by modern militaries is the 40 mm fragmentation grenade, which is effective against a wide range of targets, including infantry and lightly armored vehicles. The ability of the grenade launcher to loft payloads in a high arc has resulted in many "specialty" grenades such as less-lethal sponge grenades, flares, and even a video camera that surveys the battlefield from a bird's-eye view.
Heavier grenade launchers, such as automatic grenade launchers, are typically mounted on vehicles or in emplaced positions. These generally resemble a large machine-gun intended to rapidly launch grenades to suppress enemy activity in a target area.
Many grenades have been designed to launch from a rifle's muzzle, usually using either a special blank propellant cartridge, or more modern "bullet trap" and "shoot through" types which allow the grenade to be fired using live rounds. This system has two key advantages: the grenade can generally be made larger and more powerful as compared to underbarrel or standalone weapons, and the rifle's weight and handling characteristics are not affected as with underbarrel systems.
The disadvantage of this method is that when a soldier wants to launch a grenade, he must mount the grenade to the muzzle prior to each shot. If he is surprised by a close-range threat while preparing to fire the grenade, he has to reverse the procedure before he can respond with rifle fire. Rifle grenades also tend to be more difficult to fire accurately compared to under-barrel or standalone designs.
The man-portable grenade launcher can come in the form of either a single-shot weapon or a repeating weapon resembling a large revolver or pump-action shotgun. Examples include the M79 (single-shot) and the Milkor MGL (repeating). They fill the gap between the hand grenade and the mortar.
Modern developments tend toward faster-firing grenades with a smaller blast radius to reduce collateral damage. The XM25 CDTE is a shoulder-fired, magazine-fed semi-automatic launcher firing 25 mm projectiles. It was originally a component of the XM29 Objective Individual Combat Weapon program, but modified to a larger caliber. A 12 Gauge grenade round called the Frag-12 has also been developed for the Atchisson Assault Shotgun.
Since grenade launchers require relatively low internal pressure and only a short barrel, a lightweight launcher can be mounted under the barrel of a traditional rifle. This reduces the weight the soldier must carry by eliminating the grenade launcher's buttstock and makes the grenade launcher available for use at a moment's notice.
Automatic launchers include the Mk 19, AGS-17, and the HK GMG, which all fire at a higher velocity than related shoulder-fired grenades. They generally function as large-caliber machine guns with a relatively low rate of fire, used from an emplaced position in a similar way to a heavy machine gun. The heavy equivalent of the XM29 is the XM307 ACSW automatic grenade launcher that is easily convertible between the 25 mm grenade ammunition and standard .50 BMG cartridges. Both are intended to fire programmable "smart" grenades capable of being set to explode at a certain distance from launch or at a certain height above the ground. This gives the ability to hit targets inside rooms or behind hard cover that would normally not be reachable by small arms fire.
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