HOTAIR

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HOX transcript antisense RNA
Identifiers
Symbols HOTAIR ; HOXAS; HOXC-AS4; HOXC11-AS1; NCRNA00072
External IDs OMIM611400 GeneCards: HOTAIR Gene
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 100124700 n/a
Ensembl ENSG00000228630 n/a
UniProt n/a n/a
RefSeq (mRNA) NR_003716 n/a
RefSeq (protein) n/a n/a
Location (UCSC) Chr 12:
54.36 – 54.37 Mb
n/a
PubMed search [1] n/a

HOTAIR (for HOX antisense intergenic RNA)[1] is a human gene located on chromosome 12. It is the first example of an RNA expressed on one chromosome that has been found to influence transcription on another chromosome.

Gene and transcribed RNA product[edit]

The HOTAIR gene contains 6,232 bp and encodes 2.2 kb long noncoding RNA molecule, which controls gene expression. Its source DNA is located within a HOXC gene cluster. It is shuttled from chromosome 12 to chromosome 2 by the Suz-Twelve protein.[2]

Function[edit]

The 5' end of HOTAIR interacts with a Polycomb-group protein Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) and as a result regulates chromatin state. It is required for gene-silencing of the HOXD locus by PRC2.[3][4] The 3' end of HOTAIR interacts with the histone demethylase LSD1.[4]

It is an important factor in the epigenetic differentiation of skin over the surface of the body. Skin from various anatomical positions is distinct, e.g. the skin of the eyelid differs markedly from that on the sole of the foot.[3][5]

Clinical significance[edit]

HOTAIR is highly expressed in metastatic breast cancers. High levels of expression in primary breast tumours are a significant predictor of subsequent metastasis and death.[6] It is also involved in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Genecards entry on HOTAIR". Retrieved 20 July 2010. 
  2. ^ Petherick A (August 2008). "Genetics: The production line". Nature 454 (7208): 1042–5. doi:10.1038/4541042a. PMID 18756228. 
  3. ^ a b Rinn JL, Kertesz M, Wang JK, Squazzo SL, Xu X, Brugmann SA, Goodnough LH, Helms JA, Farnham PJ, Segal E, Chang HY (June 2007). "Functional demarcation of active and silent chromatin domains in human HOX loci by noncoding RNAs". Cell 129 (7): 1311–23. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.05.022. PMC 2084369. PMID 17604720. 
  4. ^ a b Tsai MC, Manor O, Wan Y, Mosammaparast N, Wang JK, Lan F, Shi Y, Segal E, Chang HY (August 2010). "Long noncoding RNA as modular scaffold of histone modification complexes". Science 329 (5992): 689–93. doi:10.1126/science.1192002. PMC 2967777. PMID 20616235. 
  5. ^ Chuong CM (January 2003). "Homeobox genes, fetal wound healing, and skin regional specificity". J. Invest. Dermatol. 120 (1): 9–11. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1747.2003.00002.x. PMID 12535191. 
  6. ^ Gupta RA, Shah N, Wang KC, Kim J, Horlings HM, Wong DJ, Tsai MC, Hung T, Argani P, Rinn JL, Wang Y, Brzoska P, Kong B, Li R, West RB, van de Vijver MJ, Sukumar S, Chang HY (April 2010). "Long non-coding RNA HOTAIR reprograms chromatin state to promote cancer metastasis". Nature 464 (7291): 1071–6. doi:10.1038/nature08975. PMC 3049919. PMID 20393566. 
  7. ^ Chen, FJ; Sun, M; Li, SQ; Wu, QQ; Ji, L; Liu, ZL; Zhou, GZ; Cao, G; Jin, L; Xie, HW; Wang, CM; Lv, J; De, W; Wu, M; Cao, XF (Nov 2013). "Upregulation of the long non-coding RNA HOTAIR promotes esophageal squamous cell carcinoma metastasis and poor prognosis.". Molecular carcinogenesis 52 (11): 908–15. doi:10.1002/mc.21944. PMID 24151120. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]