Hailakandi

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This article is about the municipality in India. For its namesake district, see Hailakandi district.
Hailakandi
Bengali: হাইলাকান্দি
city
Hailakandi is located in Assam
Hailakandi
Hailakandi
Location in Assam, India
Coordinates: 24°41′N 92°34′E / 24.68°N 92.57°E / 24.68; 92.57Coordinates: 24°41′N 92°34′E / 24.68°N 92.57°E / 24.68; 92.57
Country  India
State Assam
District Hailakandi
District created 01-10-1989
Area
 • Total 1,327 km2 (512 sq mi)
Elevation 21 m (69 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 659,260
 • Density 497/km2 (1,290/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Bangla
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 788XXX
Telephone code 91 - (0) 03844
Vehicle registration AS-24
Website hailakandi.nic.in

Hailakandi (Pron:ˈhaɪləˌkʌndi) (Bengali: হাইলাকান্দি) is a town and a district in Hailakandi district in the Indian state of Assam.The Hailakandi district is one of the three districts of Southern Assam i.e. Barak Valley.

Geography[edit]

Hailakandi is located at 24°41′N 92°34′E / 24.68°N 92.57°E / 24.68; 92.57.[1] The area of Hailakandi town is 4.55 km2 according to the 2001 census.It has an average elevation of 21 metres (68 feet). It has an area of 1326.10 square kilometres. Out of this, more than 50% is reserve forest. The district has got inter-state border with Mizoram on its south having a length of 76 km besides inter district border on other sides with Karimganj and Cachar districts. In year 2006, it is estimated to have a population of 5,47,003.

There are two reserved forests in Hailakandi District, the Inner line reserved forest and Katakhal reserved forest. These were once rich in wildlife but now vanishing due to human onslaught. Rare species found are Hoolock gibbon, Phayre's leaf monkey, Pig-tailed macaque, White-winged Wood Duck, Purple Wood Pigeon, etc., have been recorded.[2][3] The southern part was also recommended as 'Dhaleswari' wildlife sanctuary.[4][5]

The main language of the town is Bengali using a local dialect, which has some resemblance to Sylheti dialect. There are some Bishnupriya Manipuri and Manipuri (Meitei).

It comprises three notified towns viz. Hailakandi (district headquarters),Lala and Algapur and one industrial town ship viz. Panchgram. A Municipal Board governs Hailakandi town & a town Committee governs Lala. It has five development blocks viz. Algapur, Hailakandi, Lala, Katlicherra & South Hailakandi development Block. There is a Mahkuma Parishad named Hailakandi Mahkuma Parishad covering these 5 Development Blocks. There are total of 62 Nos. of Gaon Panchayat under these five blocks. The district is divided into four revenue circles comprising a total of 393 villages (including 27 forest villages). Nearly half the district consists of forests. Out of the remaining half, 33.2% is under cultivation. Rice is the main crop. District has got 17 tea gardens. The District has 4 Police stations, 2 Police out-posts, 4 Colleges, 43 H/E, H/School, 247 ME/ MV Schools and 937 LP schools.

History[edit]

It was constituted as a civil subdivision on 1 June 1869. Subsequently, it was upgraded to district in 1989. It is to be noted that according to some scholars,the name "Hailakandi" has been derived from the Sylheti word "Hailakundi". The later history of Hailakandi is intricately linked to Abdul Matlib Mazumdar (1890–1980), Late Nagendranath Choudhury, Late (Capt.) Manmatha Choudhury, Late (Capt.) Subodh Kumar Dutta & Late Sunil Chakravorty who lead the freedom movement in the erstwhile Sub-division. Late Nagendranath Choudhury was a prominent Congress-leader ; Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru called on him in his house during his visit to Hailakandi in 1939. His brother Late Manmatha Choudhury was a captain in the Azad Hind Fouz formed by Netaji. Abdul Matlib Mazumdar became an MLA in 1946 and also Cabinet Minister of Assam.[6] He was one of the prominent Muslim leaders of eastern India to support Hindu-Muslim unity, opposing the partition of India on communal lines. Mazumdar along with Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed (who later became the 5th President of India) became the most prominent Muslim opponents of the demand for a separate Muslim state of Pakistan, especially in the eastern part of the country. Mazumdar took Master of Arts Degree in English literature from Dhaka University in 1921 and B.L. from Calcutta in 1924. He started legal practice at Hailakandi Bar in 1925. He rose to prominence as a lawyer serving the people of Hailakandi. The then government offered him the post of a Magistrate, which he refused.[7] He joined the Indian National Congress in 1925. He founded the Hailakandi Congress Committee in 1937 and became its first President. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose and Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru visited Hailakandi in 1939 and 1945 respectively at the invitation of Mazumdar to strengthen the freedom movement as well as the Congress party in southern Assam. It was Netaji who initiated establishment of contact between Moulana Abul Kalam Azad and Matlib Mazumdar for gearing up nationalist Muslims against a growing Muslim League in the region.[8] Mazumdar became the first Chairman of Hailakandi township in 1939 and in 1945 he became the first Indian Chairman of the Hailakandi Local Board, a post always held by the European tea planters.[9]

The Muslim League proved its might in the Muslim-dominated areas of India in 1937 elections. To counter the rising popularity of Muslim League, he successfully organised the Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind movement in Assam. Jamiat was an ally of the Congress having a mass following among the nationalist Muslims. In the very crucial 1946 General Elections just on the eve of India’s independence, he wrested the Muslim majority Hailakandi seat from the hold of Muslim League. That victory virtually sealed the hopes and aspirations of the Muslim League to include southern Assam in Pakistan. It may be mentioned here that in that election, the bulk of the Muslim nominees of the Indian National Congress including Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed (5th President of India in later years) had lost to their Muslim League rivals miserably.

Assam's Surma Valley (now partly in Bangladesh) had Muslim-majority population. On the eve of partition, hectic activities intensified by the Muslim League as well Congress with the former having an edge. A referendum had been proposed for Sylhet District (now in Bangladesh). Mazumdar along with Basanta Kumar Das (then Home Minister of Assam) travelled throughout the valley organising the Congress and addressing meetings educating the masses about the outcome of partition on the basis of religion. On 20 February 1947, Moulvi Mazumdar inaugurated a convention – Assam Nationalist Muslim's Convention at Silchar. There after another big meeting was held at Silchar on 8 June 1947.[10] Both the meetings, which were attended by a large section of Muslims paid dividend. He was also among the few who were instrumental in retaining the Barak Valley region of Assam with India.[11][12] Mazumdar was the leader of the delegation that pleaded before the Radcliffe Commission that ensured that a part of Sylhet (now in Bangladesh) remains with India despite being Muslim-majority (present Karimganj district). [13][11].

Moulvi Mazumdar joined as a Cabinet Minister of Assam in 1946 with the portfolios of Local Self-Government, Agriculture and Veterinary. In 1947, India became free from British rule, when Mazumdar again took charge of the same departments in Gopinath Bordoloi's cabinet as the only Muslim minister (Moulana Tayyebulla was inducted in 1948) and also the lone member from the entire Barak valley region. The entire eastern India was swept by violence just after India's partition and independence on 15 August 1947, scores of Hindus fled the newly created East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) for India, and Muslims fled Assam for East Pakistan. A large number of people lost their lives owing to violence, which resurfaced with more ferocity in 1950. Mazumdar, the only Muslim in the cabinet, along with his cabinet and party colleagues took up responsibility for the safety of both Hindus and Muslims in Hailakandi, touring affected areas and arranging camps and rehabilitation for the refugees, organizing supplies and security.

He continued as a Cabinet Minister in Bishnuram Medhi’s cabinet till 1957.[14][15] His last election was in 1967 when at the age of 77, Mazumdar reached Assam Assembly victorious. He then became the Minister for Law, Social Welfare and Political Sufferers in Bimala Prasad Chaliha’s cabinet. As Law minister, he initiated the separation of executive and judiciary at the district level. During the Bangladesh’s war of liberation in 1970-71, he was in charge of relief-&-rehabilitation of the thousands of refugees who fled the then East Pakistan. He resigned from active politics in 1971. Other posts held by him during his long career are the Chairman, Assam Madrassa Board; Chairman, State Haj Committee and the Pro tem Speaker of the Assam Legislative Assembly (in 1967). He was instrumental in setting up the hajj house [haji musafir khana] at Guwahati. As Chairman of Madrassah Board, he initiated modernization of these theological schools and is also credited for the introduction of English and science in the curriculum of madrassas of Assam.[16] He was the key person to set up centres of higher education at Hailakandi.[17]

Another prominent person from Hailakandi was Late Raj Mohan Nath, a noted Engineer, whose authored many books on different subjects apart from engineering. One of his books was a text-book for the students of civil engineering in the Bengal Engineering College, Shibpur (West Bengal). Today's "Assam-type house" is entirely his concept which gained vast popularity in the earthquake zones. One of the roads in Moscow has been named after him.

Economy[edit]

In the organized sector, tea is the main industry of the district. It has 17 Tea estates with 55.70 square kilometres under tea plantation employing more than 1,30,642 persons as per 1991 census. Production of tea was 87.62 tonnes. The Hindustan paper mill Panchgram comes to the second place where large number of people get employment opportunities in the district. The predominant income generating activity for the district is the agricultural sector and its allied enterprises.

Demographics[edit]

As of 2001 India census,[18] Hailakandi town had a population of 29,634 and the district had a total population of 5,47,003. Males constitute 51% of the district's population and females 49%. Hailakandi has an average literacy rate of 78.5%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 82%, and female literacy is 75%. In Hailakandi, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.

Education[edit]

In this district there are 4 colleges. 48 High & Higher Secondary Schools, 253 Middle Schools, 1019 Primary/Pre Primary Schools,1 Navodaya Vidyalaya, 1 Kendriya Vidyalaya & 1 Basic Training School.

  1. Srikishana Sarda College : Srikishan Sarda College was established in 1950 with eminent educationalist Late Sisir Kar Shastri as the founder Principal. The College land was donated by educationalist late Pratap Ch. Nath. Late Shrichand Sarda donated the 1st building of the College. The College was affiliated to Gauhati University in 1956. Since 1994,it is affiliated to Assam University. There are about 1300 students studying in Arts and Science stream. It has a strength of 55 Lecturers and 24 non teaching staffs. The Subjects taught here are English, Bengali, Manipuri, Sanskrit, Persian, Economics, Political Science, Philosophy, History, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Botany, Zoology & Statistics. The College is imparting education up to Degree Honors level in all subjects except Manipuri and Chemistry.
  2. Abdul Latif Choudhury College :(Algapur) was established in 1996 and is affiliated to Assam University .The College's infrastructure & facilities are laudable. It has four floors. It is located 8KM away from the main town Hailakandi. The College has two streams Arts and commerce. Since 1996, there are about 1500 students studying in Arts and Commerce stream. Staff strength comprises 35 Experienced Lecturers and 14 non-teaching staffs. The Subjects taught here are English, Bengali, Manipuri, Sanskrit, Persian, Economics, Political Science, Philosophy, History, Mathematics, Financial Accounting, Business Organization and Management, Computer Applications, Office Management, Business Law, Cost Accounting, Audit, Operations Research and Statistics. The College is imparting education up to Degree Honors level in all subjects except Commerce stream.
  3. Sashi Bushan Institute of Open Learning College: This College started few years ago, is now functioning in the Community Hall, constructed by DRDA. This Building/Hall was established from the EAS Fund of 98-99 with an amount of Rs. 7.50 lakhs. It is situated at Lakhirbond, Hailakandi Badarpur PWD Road. It was inaugurated by Hon’ble Chief Minister of Assam on 15 December 1998. Besides the construction of building of the College, the DRDA has also constructed the bounding walls of the College with an amount of Rs. 6.00 lakhs from EAS fund.
  4. Sanskrit College: The building of Sanskrit College was constructed by DRDA from United Fund 1996-97 for an amount Rs.5.02 lakhs. At present nearly two hundred and above student are at this college.
  5. ETC, Hailakandi(Boalipar): Extension Training Centre, Hailakandi was constructed in the year 1998. There are (four) ETCs in the state of Assam. The ETC, Hailakandi covers the whole of Barak Valley & Hills districts. To arm up the rural youth both with the modern technique method, culture, veterinary, fishery, small scale Industries and other subjects with the hope of providing self-employment in the rural areas with the help of D.R.D.A and other Govt. sectors are its main objects. So far 1391 unemployed youth were imparted training on Agro based sectors for self-employment. Apart from this computer operation training is available in ETC.
  6. Govt. V. M. H.S. School : The School was first established after the name of Queen Victoria as Victoria Memorial Middle English School in 1903 to spread education in this locality. The foundation stone was laid down by Her Majesty the Queen Victoria of England. The School was upgraded to High School stage in 1913 with Babu Raj Kumar Sen as the first Head Master. The School was undertaken by Govt.Presently, roll strength of the School is > 1000 and the admission is strictly on merit basis. The teaching in H.S. section is imparted both in English and Bengali medium.
  7. Hailakandi Govt.Public High School
  8. Indra Kumari Girls High School
  9. Mainul Haque Chaudhury Memorial Science College
  10. Private Schools: Today many private schools are flourishing in Hailakandi. Regarding English Schools, the first one to establish is Sishu Sadan (Rukma Tusniwal) English Medium School. Then Blue Flowers and Budding Roses English Medium School were established. Now many other English medium schools have also been established namely Saint Mary's, Garden Rich, Spring Valley, Global Public School etc. Different initiatives are taken by different schools to increase the level of education. Budding Roses has already started its international standard project to make up the students a step ahead of the society. They have introduced the Smart-Edu Project first time in Hailakandi and also the WLAN internet facility throughout their whole campus. More over Bengali Medium Private Schools are on the go in Halakandi. A few names in this respect are Momjan Academy, Talent Academy, Netaji Subash Academy, Royal Academy, Adarsha Vidyaniketan, Sishu Niketan etc.

Constituencies[edit]

Hailakandi is part of Karimganj (Lok Sabha constituency).Hailakandi has 3 state assembly constituencies-Hailakandi,Algapur and Katlichera[19]

See also[edit]

Hailakandi Airfield

References[edit]

  1. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Hailakandi
  2. ^ Choudhury, A.U. (1986). Discovery of Pharye's leaf monkey in Assam. The Sentinel 31 August.
  3. ^ Choudhury, A.U. (1987). Notes on the distribution and conservation of Phayre’s leaf monkey and hoolock gibbon in India. Tigerpaper 14(2): 2-6.
  4. ^ Choudhury, A.U. (1983). Plea for a new wildlife refuge in eastern India. Tigerpaper 10(4):12-15.
  5. ^ Choudhury, A.U. (1983). Plea for a new wildlife sanctuary in Assam. WWF - India Newsletter 4(4):15.
  6. ^ Assam Legislative Assembly - MLA 1946-1952
  7. ^ Abdul Matlib Mazumdar- a centenary tribute Choudhury, A. (1990). The Assam Tribune, 1 June, Guwahati, India.
  8. ^ Bhattacharyya, N. (1998). Hailakandite Netaji. Hailakandi – smaranika (in Bengali). (Souvenir of the 50th year of independence). District Administration, Hailakandi, India.
  9. ^ Barua, D. C. (1990). Moulvi Matlib Mazumdar- as I knew him. Abdul Matlib Mazumdar – birth centenary tributes, pp. 8–9.
  10. ^ Bhattacharjee, J. B. (1977). Cachar under British Rule in North East India. Radiant Publishers, New Delhi.
  11. ^ Barua, D. C. (1990). Moulvi Matlib Mazumdar- as I knew him. Abdul Matlib Mazumdar – birth centenary tributes, pp. 8–9.
  12. ^ Purkayashta, M. (1990). Tyagi jananeta Abdul Matlib Mazumdar. The Prantiya Samachar (in Bengali). Silchar, India.
  13. ^ Roy, S. K. (1990). Jananeta Abdul Matlib Mazumdar (in Bengali). Abdul Matlib Mazumdar – birth centenary tributes, pp. 24–27.
  14. ^ http://www.eci.nic.in/eci_main/statistical reports/SE.../StatRep_51_ASSAM.pdf
  15. ^ http://www.northeastunlimited.com/facts/263.html
  16. ^ Mazumdar, A. M. (1990). Abdul Matlib Mazumdar- remembrance by a son : down the momory lane. Abdul Matlib Mazumdar – birth centenary tributes, pp. 10–12.
  17. ^ EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS in HAILAKANDI
  18. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  19. ^ "List of Parliamentary & Assembly Constituencies" (PDF). Assam. Election Commission of India. Retrieved 2008-10-05. 

External links[edit]