States and union territories of India

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Indian Ocean Bay of Bengal Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Laccadive Sea Siachen Glacier Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar Haveli Daman and Diu Delhi Lakshadweep Pondicherry Pondicherry Pondicherry Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Odisha Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand West Bengal Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan Burma China Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka Tajikistan Dadra and Nagar Haveli Daman and Diu Pondicherry Pondicherry Pondicherry Pondicherry Andhra Pradesh Goa Gujarat Jammu and Kashmir Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Assam Meghalaya Arunachal Pradesh Nagaland Manipur Mizoram Tripura West Bengal Sikkim Bhutan Bangladesh Bihar Jharkhand Odisha Chhattisgarh Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand Nepal Delhi Haryana Punjab Himachal Pradesh Chandigarh Pakistan Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Sri Lanka
A clickable map of the 28 states and 7 union territories of India


India is a federal union of states[1] comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.[1]

List of states and territories[edit]

States
Map Name ISO 3166-2 code[2] Date of formation Population Area
(km2)
Official
language(s)
Capital Largest city
(if not capital)
Population density Literacy Rate(%) % of Urban Population to total Population
1 Andhra Pradesh[*] AP 1 November 1956 84,665,533 275,045 Telugu, Urdu Hyderabad 308 67.66 27.3
2 Arunachal Pradesh AR 20 February 1987 1,382,611 83,743 English Itanagar 17 66.95 20.8
3 Assam AS 15 August 1947 31,169,272 78,550 Assamese; Regional: Bodo, Bengali Dispur Guwahati 397 73.18 12.9
4 Bihar BR 1 April 1936 103,804,637 99,200 Hindi, Magadhi, Maithili, Urdu Patna 1,102 63.82 10.5
5 Chhattisgarh CT 1 November 2000 25,540,196 135,194 Chattisgarhi, Hindi Raipur 189 71.04 20.1
6 Goa GA 30 May 1987 1,457,723 3,702 Konkani Panjim 394 87.40 62.2
7 Gujarat GJ 1 May 1960 60,383,628 196,024 Gujarati Gandhinagar Ahmedabad 308 79.31 37.4
8 Haryana HR 1 November 1966 25,353,081 44,212 Hindi, Haryanvi (regional) Chandigarh
(shared, Union Territory)
Faridabad 573 76.64 28.9
9 Himachal Pradesh HP 25 January 1971 6,856,509 55,673 Hindi, Pahari (regional) Shimla 123 83.78 9.8
10 Jammu and Kashmir JK 26 October 1947 12,548,926 222,236 Dogri, Kashmiri, Ladakhi, Urdu[3] Srinagar (summer)
Jammu (winter)
124 68.74 24.8
11 Jharkhand JH 15 November 2000 32,966,238 74,677 Hindi Ranchi Jamshedpur 414 67.63 22.2
12 Karnataka KA 1 November 1956 61,130,704 191,791 Kannada, English Bangalore 319 75.60 34.0
13 Kerala KL 1 November 1956 33,387,677 38,863 Malayalam Thiruvananthapuram Kochi 859 93.91 26.0
14 Madhya Pradesh MP 1 November 1956 72,597,565 308,252 Hindi Bhopal Indore 236 70.63 26.5
15 Maharashtra MH 1 May 1960 112,372,972 307,713 Marathi Mumbai 365 82.91 42.4
16 Manipur MN 21 January 1972 2,721,756 22,347 Manipuri Imphal 122 79.85 25.1
17 Meghalaya ML 21 January 1972 2,964,007 22,720 English, Garo, Hindi, Khasi, Pnar, Shillong 132 75.48 19.6
18 Mizoram MZ 20 February 1987 1,091,014 21,081 Mizo Aizawl 52 91.58 49.6
19 Nagaland NL 1 December 1963 1,980,602 16,579 English Kohima Dimapur 119 80.11 17.2
20 Odisha [4] (Orissa) OR 1 April 1936 41,947,358 155,820 Oriya Bhubaneswar 269 73.45 15.0
21 Punjab PB 1 November 1966 27,704,236 50,362 Punjabi Chandigarh
(shared, Union Territory)
Ludhiana 550 76.68 33.9
22 Rajasthan RJ 1 November 1956 68,621,012 342,269 Hindi, Rajasthani Jaipur 201 67.06 23.4
23 Sikkim SK 16 May 1975 607,688 7,096 Nepali, Bhutia, Gurung, Lepcha, Limbu, Manggar, Newari, Sherpa, Sunwar, Tamang Gangtok 86 82.20 11.1
24 Tamil Nadu TN 26 January 1950 72,138,958 130,058 Tamil Chennai 480 80.33 44.0
25 Tripura TR 21 January 1972 3,671,032 10,492 Bengali, Tripuri Agartala 350 87.75 17.1
26 Uttar Pradesh UP 26 January 1950 199,581,477 243,286 Hindi, Urdu[5] Lucknow 828 69.72 20.8
27 Uttarakhand UT 9 November 2000 10,116,752 53,566 Hindi, Sanskrit Dehradun (interim) 189 79.63 25.7
28 West Bengal WB 1 November 1956 91,347,736 88,752 Bengali, English Kolkata 1,029 77.08 28.0

^ Will split into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. [6] [7]

Union Territories
Map Name ISO 3166-2 code[2] Population Official
language
Capital Population density Literacy Rate(%) Percentage of Urban Population to total Population
A Andaman and Nicobar Islands AN 379,944 English,Tamil Port Blair 46 86.27 32.6
B Chandigarh CH 1,054,686 English, Hindi, Punjabi Chandigarh 9,252 86.43 89.8
C Dadra and Nagar Haveli DN 342,853 English, Gujarati, Hindi, Marathi Silvassa 698 77.65 22.9
D Daman and Diu DD 242,911 English, Gujarati, Hindi, Marathi Daman 2169 87.07 36.2
E Lakshadweep LD 64,429 English, Malayalam Kavaratti 2013 92.28 44.5
F National Capital Territory of Delhi DL 16,753,235 English, Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu Delhi 11,297 86.34 93.2
G Puducherry PY 1,244,464 French and Tamil; Regional: Malayalam, Telugu Pondicherry 2,598 86.55 66.6
States and union
territories of India

ordered by
Flag of India.svg
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Abbreviations
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Responsibilities and authorities[edit]

The Constitution of India distributes the sovereign powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. "Article 73 broadly stated, provides that the executive power of the Union shall extend to the matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws. Article 162 similarly provides that the executive power of a State shall extend to the matters with respect to which the Legislature of a State has power to make laws. The Supreme Court has reiterated this position when it ruled in the Ramanaiah case that the executive power of the Union or of the State broadly speaking, is coextensive and coterminous with its respective legislative power." (italics in original)[8]

History[edit]

Hyderabad state in 1909
Administrative division of India in 1951

Pre-1956[edit]

The Indian Subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region.[9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was mostly kept, and India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, who held de facto sovereignty (suzerainty) over the princely states.

Post-1956[edit]

Several new states and union territories have been created out of existing states since 1956. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960[19] by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was made a state on 1 December 1963.[20] The Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 divided the Punjab along linguistic lines, creating a new Hindi-speaking state of Haryana on 1 November,[21] transferring the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh, and designating Chandigarh, the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana, a union territory.[22]

Statehood was conferred upon Himachal Pradesh[23] on 25 January 1971, Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura[24] on 21 January 1972 the Kingdom of Sikkim joined the Indian Union as a state on 26 April 1975.[25] In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu became a separate union territory.[26]

In 2000 three new states were created; Chhattisgarh (1 November 2000) was created out of eastern Madhya Pradesh,[27] Uttaranchal (9 November 2000), which was renamed Uttarakhand in 2007,[28] was created out of the Hilly regions of northwest Uttar Pradesh,[29] and Jharkhand (15 November 2000) was created out of the southern districts of Bihar.[30]

Current Proposals[edit]

Ahead of the 2009 General Elections in India, all the major parties in Andhra Pradesh supported statehood for Telangana. [31]

As a result of this unilateral decision by the Government of India, several members of Andhra Pradesh's legislature submitted their resignations to protest the creation of the new state owing to the pressure from the people in their constituencies.[32] As of 11 December, at least 117 legislators and many Members of Parliament had resigned in protest of the Government's decision to carve out a new state of Telangana.[33]

Due to the unexpected turn of events, after the parties which promised support to the Telangana state formation on 7 December 2009 in a unanimous all-party meeting at the State level, presided by CM, Rosaiah, and later the party members of these parties made a U-turn on their support bowing to the pressure from the people in their constituency following the 9 December statement (in support of Telangana state process initiation), the federal government made another statement on 23 December to clarify its intention on the process that it would consult with all groups, political and non-political, before moving forward. It then formed the Justice Sri Krishna committee which has been touring the state consulting with different sections of the society. A report recommending a solution suitable to all constituents is expected to be submitted before 31 December 2010.[34]

In November 2011 Mayawati, the chief minister of Uttar Pradesh, proposed dividing it into four states, Avadh Pradesh, Bundelkhand, Paschim Pradesh, and Purvanchal. On 21 November this movement was backed through a "voice vote" by the state assembly, despite criticism from the opposition and claims that the move was made to gain support for the next state election. It must gain the approval of the federal government, however this may be difficult due to the opposition to the creation of Telangana.[35]

On 30 July 2013, the ruling Congress party resolved to request the Central government to form a separate state of Telangana, as the 29th state of India. The city of Hyderabad would serve as the joint capital of Telangana and the remainder of Andhra Pradesh for ten years.[36][37][38] On 3 October 2013, the Union Cabinet approved the division of the existing state of Andhra Pradesh.[39]

On 5 December 2013, Cabinet approved the Telangana draft bill prepared by the Group of Ministers (GoM). The bill was then submitted to Parliament for a vote by both houses.[40] On February 18, 2014 the 15th Lok Sabha (lower house of Parliament) passed a resolution to create the state of Telangana,[41] followed by the Rajya Sabha (upper house) on February 20, 2014.[42] President Pranab Mukherjee gave assent to the bill on 1 March 2014,[6] followed by an official announcement on 4 March 2014, in the Gazette of India, that the new state will be formed on 2 June 2014. [7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "States and union territories". Retrieved 2007-09-07. 
  2. ^ a b "Code List: 3229". UN/EDIFACT. GEFEG. Retrieved 25 December 2012. 
  3. ^ "Official and Regional Languages of India". Mapsofindia.com. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  4. ^ "Orissa's new name is Odisha". The Times Of India. 24 March 2011. 
  5. ^ "Uttar Pradesh Legislature". Uplegassembly.nic.in. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  6. ^ a b "The Gazette of India : The Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2014". Ministry of Law and Justice. Government of India. March 1, 2014. Retrieved April 23, 2014. 
  7. ^ a b "The Gazette of India : The Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2014 Sub-section". March 4, 2014. Retrieved April 23, 2014. 
  8. ^ Territoriality of executive powers of states in India, Balwant Singh Malik, Constitutional Law, 1998
  9. ^ Krishna Reddy (2003). Indian History. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-048369-8. 
  10. ^ Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (1977). Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 81-208-0436-8. 
  11. ^ Romila Thapar. A History of India: Part 1. 
  12. ^ G. Bongard-Levin. A History of India: Volume 1. 
  13. ^ Gupta Dynasty - MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. 
  14. ^ "India - Historical Setting - The Classical Age - Gupta and Harsha". Historymedren.about.com. 2 November 2009. Retrieved 2010-05-16. 
  15. ^ Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (2002) [1955]. A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. p. 239. ISBN 0-19-560686-8. 
  16. ^ Chandra, Satish. Medieval India: From Sultanate To The Mughals. p. 202. 
  17. ^ "Regional states, c. 1700–1850". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 
  18. ^ Grewal, J. S. (1990). "Chapter 6: The Sikh empire (1799–1849)". The Sikh empire (1799–1849). The New Cambridge History of India. The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press. 
  19. ^ J.C. Aggarwal and S.P. Agrawal, editors, Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future (New Delhi: Concept Publishing, 1995), p89-90
  20. ^ Nagaland History & Geography-Source india.gov.in
  21. ^ The Punjab Reorganisation Act 1966[dead link]
  22. ^ "State map of India". Travel India guide. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  23. ^ "Himachal Pradesh Tenth Five Year Plan" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  24. ^ Snapshot of North Eastern States
  25. ^ Bhargava, S. C. Bhatt, Gopal K. (2006). Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories: In 36 Volumes. Sikkim. Gyan Publishing House. p. 13. ISBN 9788178353807. Retrieved 27 March 2014. 
  26. ^ Goa Chronology
  27. ^ "Chhattisgarh state - History". Cg.gov.in. 1979-12-19. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  28. ^ Chopra, Jasi Kiran (2 January 2007). "Uttaranchal is Uttarakhand, BJP cries foul". TNN. The Time of India. Retrieved 22 January 2013. 
  29. ^ "About Us: Uttarakhand Government Portal, India". Uk.gov.in. 2000-11-09. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  30. ^ "Official Website of Government of Jharkhand". Jharkhand.gov.in. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  31. ^ Edgar Thorpe, Showick Thorpe (2011). The Pearson CSAT Manual 2011. Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. pp. CA.5. ISBN 978-81-317-5830-4. 
  32. ^ Press Trust of India (10 December 2009). "60 AP MLAs submit resignation to protest Telangana creation". Business Standard. Retrieved 10 December 2009. 
  33. ^ "Telangana: Shutdown in Andhra Pradesh, 117 legislators quit". Times of India. 11 December 2009. Retrieved 10 December 2009. 
  34. ^ "Srikrishna report by Dec. 31". Deccan Chronicle. 27 October 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2010. 
  35. ^ "India: Uttar Pradesh assembly backs state division". BBC News. 21 November 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011. 
  36. ^ "Telangana will be 29th state, Hyderabad to be common capital for 10 years". TThe Times of India. 30 July 2013. Archived from the original on 31 July 2013. 
  37. ^ "Congress gives nod to Telangana; Hyderabad to be joint capital". Zeenews.india.com. 31 July 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2013. 
  38. ^ http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/asiapacific/telangana-to-share/1008192.html
  39. ^ "Creation of a new state of Telangana by bifurcating the existing State of Andhra Pradesh". Home Ministry, Govt of India. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  40. ^ "Cabinet clears bill for creation of Telangana with 10 districts". Economic Times. 5 December 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013. 
  41. ^ "Telangana bill passed in Lok Sabha". NDTV. 18 February 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2014. 
  42. ^ "Telanga bill passed by upper house". Times of India. Retrieved 20 Feb 2014. 

External links[edit]