Haragei (腹芸) is a form of rhetoric that is intended to express real intention and true meaning through implication. This form of implicature is known as Haragei in Japan where it appears as a concept in interpersonal communication and martial arts. Literally translated, the term means "stomach art", and it refers to an exchange of thoughts and feelings that is implied in conversation, rather than explicitly stated. In some societies, it can also denote charisma or strength of personality. In Western literature, the essence of the difference between just talking and really communicating through silence is analyzed in Harold Pinter’s The Dumb Waiter.
Most people use, almost without thought and without question, the processes which have been handed down to them as part of their cultural heritage. This is particularly true in hierarchical, authoritarian societies where approved practices are not challenged, but in any society decision-making processes tend to become a fixed and unthought-of part of the culture. However, many Japanese still consider it difficult for non-Japanese, particularly Westerners, to fully understand so incorrectly see implicature as uniquely Japanese.
In negotiation, haragei is characterised by euphemisms, vague and indirect statements, prolonged silences and careful avoidance of any comment that might potentially give offense. Information is communicated through timing, facial expression and emotional context, rather than through direct speech. Takie Lebra identified four dimensions of Japanese silence - truthfulness, social discretion, embarrassment and defiance. It is sometimes considered a duplicitous tactic in negotiation to obfuscate one's true intentions, and so is often viewed in the West with suspicion; It can also be misconstrued by those with limited experience in the tactic, as in the example of President Nixon's misinterpretation of Sato Eisaku's comments in 1970. During a dispute over textile imports, Eisaku responded to Nixon's request for assistance in limiting Japanese exports by saying, "Zensho itashimasu" (lit. "I will do my best"). To Eisaku, this was an indirect way of saying, "no" (since to do so directly would have been contrary to the principles of haragei); however Eisaku did not understand that Nixon took it as a promise of assistance.
Haragei also functions as a method of leadership, replacing direct orders to subordinates with subtle, non-verbal signals. It is considered a desirable trait in a leader in Japan.
In martial arts circles, haragei refers to those arts which supposedly enabled the practitioner to sense threats or anticipate an opponent's movements similar to Reinforcement sensitivity theory.
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