Hipparion

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Hipparion
Temporal range: Mid Miocene to Pleistocene,[1] 23–0.781Ma
H. mediterraneum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Perissodactyla
Family: Equidae
Genus: Hipparion
De Christol, 1832
Species
  • H. concudense
  • H. crassum
  • H. dietrichi
  • H. fissurae
  • H. forcei
  • H. gromovae
  • H. laromae
  • H. longipes
  • H. macedonicum
  • H. matthewi
  • H. mediterraneum
  • H. molayanense
  • H. periafricanum
  • H. rocinantis
  • H. sellardsi
  • H. shirleyae
  • H. tehonense

Hipparion (Greek, "pony") is an extinct genus of horse living in North America, Asia, Europe, and Africa during the Miocene through Pleistocene ~23 Mya—781,000 years ago, existing for 22 million years.

Its habitat or biome would be that of non-forested, grassy plains, shortgrass prairie or steppes.

Taxonomy[edit]

Painting of Hipparion
Jaw of Hipparion rocinantis crusafonti.

Hipparion was named by de Christol (1832) with it assigned the type European H. prostylum. It was assigned to Equidae by de Christol (1832), Thurmond and Jones (1981) and Carroll (1988); and to Hipparionini by MacFadden (1998).[2][3][4]

Morphology[edit]

Hipparion resembled the modern horse, but still had three vestigal outer toes (in addition to its hoof). These did not touch the ground. Hipparion was about 1.4 metres (13.3 hands) tall at the shoulder.[1]

Body mass[edit]

Three specimens were examined by Legendre and Roth for body mass.[5]

  • Specimen 1 was estimated to weigh: 118.9 kg (260 lb)
  • Specimen 2 was estimated to weigh: 69.4 kg (150 lb)
  • Specimen 3 was estimated to weigh: 62.8 kg (140 lb)

Fossil distribution[edit]

  • H. concudense was named by Pirlot (1956). Fossil distribution: Casa del Acero site, Murcia, Spain and Masia de La Roma site, Aragon, Spain. It was endemic to Southwestern Europe ~11.6—5.3 Mya.
  • H. crassum was named by Gervais (1859). Fossil distribution: Odessa, Ukraine, Dorkovo, Ukraine. It was endemic to Southeastern Europe ~4.9 Mya—11,000 years ago.
  • H. dietrichi was named by Wehrli (1941). Fossil distribution: Macedonia, Greece and Nikiti, Greece. It was endemic to Southeastern Europe ~9 —5.3 Mya.
  • H. fissurae was named by Crusafont and Sondaar (1971). Fossil distribution: Soria, Spain. It was endemic to Southwestern Europe ~5.3 —3.4 Mya.
  • H. forcei was named by Richey (1948). Fossil distribution: Contra Costa, Santa Cruz, Los Angeles counties. It was endemic to western North America ~23—5.3 Mya.
  • H. gromovae was named by Villalta and Crusafont (1957). Fossil distribution: Murcia, Spain. It was endemic to Southwestern Europe. ~9—5.3 Mya.
  • H. laromae was named by Pesquero et al. (2006). Fossil distribution: Teruel, Spain. It was endemic to Southwestern Europe. ~9.7—8.7 Mya.
  • H. longipes was named by Gromova (1952). Fossil distribution: Ankara, Turkey. It was endemic to Eurasia. ~5.3—3.4 Mya.
  • H. macedonicum was named by Koufos (1984). Fossil distribution: Greece. It was endemic to Southwestern Europe. ~8.7—7.8 Mya.
  • H. matthewi was named by Abel (1926). Fossil distribution: Ankara, Turkey. It was endemic to Asia Minor. ~11.6—5.3 Mya.
  • H. mediterraneum was named by Roth and Wagner (1855). Fossil distribution: Iraq, Turkey, Greece. It was endemic to Asia Minor, Greece ~9—5.3 Mya.
  • H. molayanense was named by Zouhri (1992). Fossil distribution: Afghanistan It was endemic to Southwest Asia ~9—5.3 Mya.
  • H. periafricanum was named by de Christol (1832). Fossil distribution: Aragon, Spain. It was endemic to Southwestern Europe ~9—5.3 Mya.
  • H. rocinantis was named by Hernández Pacheco (1921). Fossil distribution: Spain. It was endemic to Southwestern Europe ~5.3—1.8 Mya.
  • H. sellardsi was named by Matthew and Stirton (1930).
  • H. shirleyae was named by MacFadden (1984).
  • H. tehonense was named by Stirton (1940). Fossil distribution: North America, widespread from Florida to California. ~23.3—5.3 Mya.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Palmer, D., ed. (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. London: Marshall Editions. p. 257. ISBN 1-84028-152-9. 
  2. ^ J. T. Thurmond and D. E. Jones. 1981. Fossil Vertebrates of Alabama 1-244
  3. ^ R. L. Carroll. 1988. Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. W. H. Freeman and Company, New York 1-698
  4. ^ B. J. MacFadden. 1998. Equidae. In C. M. Janis, K. M. Scott, and L. L. Jacobs (eds.), Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America 1:537-559
  5. ^ S. Legendre and C. Roth. 1988. Correlation of carnassial tooth size and body weight in recent carnivores (Mammalia). Historical Biology 1(1):85-98