|Fields||biochemistry, chemical engineering|
|Institutions||Pease Laboratories 1924-1934,
Wallerstein Company 1934- 1971
|Alma mater||College of the City of New York|
Irwin Stone (1907–1984) was an American biochemist, chemical engineer, and author. He was the first to use ascorbic acid in the food processing industry as a preservative, and originated and published the hypothesis that humans require much larger amounts of Vitamin C for optimal health than is necessary to prevent scurvy.
Food preservative work
In 1934, Stone, while director of the enzyme and fermentation research laboratory for the Wallerstein Company, worked on the antioxidant properties of ascorbate (also known as Vitamin C), which had then recently been described by Albert Szent-Györgyi only two years earlier. He was awarded 26 patents in industrial chemistry, mainly related to fermentation science, pharmaceutical techniques, and nutrient cultivation.
He discovered he could use ascorbate to keep foodstuffs fresh for longer, limiting the effects of exposure to air and oxidation. Stone obtained the first patents on an industrial application of ascorbic acid with three patent applications filed in 1935 and granted in 1939 and 1940.
Dr. Stone's research in ascorbic acid continued and led to his interest in the disease, scurvy. By the late 1950s, Stone had formulated his hypothesis that scurvy was not a dietary disturbance, but a potentially fatal flaw in human genetics that had suppressed an essential part of the mammalian biochemistry and had been misunderstood by nutritionists. He proposed the name hypoascorbemia for the effects of this genetic defect. He proposed that ascorbate was not a vitamin required only in trace amounts, but was required by humans in relatively large daily quantities. He produced four papers, between 1965 and 1967, describing what he considered the true human requirement for ascorbate.
Stone experienced great difficulty in getting his ideas published. However, following his retirement from his position as chemist from the Wallerstein company in 1971, he worked full time on ascorbate. In 1972 he published the book, The Healing Factor.
Irwin Stone introduced Linus Pauling to Vitamin C and is recognised within orthomolecular medicine as one of its founders. His research provided additional scientific background for the clinical results of megadose ascorbate treatments claimed by his contemporary, Dr. Frederick Robert Klenner.
Both Linus Pauling and Albert Szent-Györgyi wrote forewords to The Healing Factor endorsing his ideas.
- Stone, Irwin : Studies of a Mammalian Enzyme System for Producing Evolutionary Evidence on Man. Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop. 15, 83-85, 1965.
- Stone, Irwin : On the Genetic Etiology of Scurvy. Acts Genet. Med. Gemellol. 15, 345-350,1966.
- Stone, Irwin : Hypoascorbemia, the Genetic Disease Causing the Human Requirement for Exogenous Ascorbic Acid, Perspectives Bio. Med. 10, 133-134, 1966.
- Stone, Irwin : The Genetic Disease, Hyposacorbemia: A Fresh Approach to an Ancient Disease and Some of its Medical Implications, Acta Genet Med. Gemellol. 16, 52-62. 1967.
- Stone, Irwin : The Natural History of Ascorbic Acid in the Evolution of the Mammals and Primates and its Significance for Present Day Man. J. Orthomolecular Psychiatry 1: Nos. 2 & 3, 82-89, 1972.
- Stone I. The natural history of ascorbic acid in the evolution of the mammals and primates and its significance for present-day man. Journal Orthomolecular Psychiatry 1:Nos 2 & 3:82-89, 1972.
- Stone I. Humans, the mammalian mutants. American Laboratory 6:No 4: 32-39, 1974.
- Stone I. The Healing Factor. “Vitamin C” Against Disease. Grosset & Dunlap, New York, 1972.
- Stone I. Eight decades of scurvy. The case history of a misleading dietary hypothesis. J Orthomolecular Psychiatry, In press, 1979.
- Stone I. The CSS Syndrome, a medical paradox. Northwest Academy Preventive Medicine Journal 1:No 1:24-28, 1977.
- Stone I. On the genetic etiology of scurvy. Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae 15:345-350, 1966.
- Stone I. The genetic disease, hypoascorbemia. A fresh approach to an ancient disease and some of its medical implications. Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae 16:52-62, 1967.
- Belfield WO, Stone I. Megascorbic prophylaxis and megascorbic therapy: a new orthomolecular modality in veterinary medicine. Journal International Academy Preventive Medicine 2:No 3:10-26, 1975.
- Stone I. Sudden death. A look back from ascorbate’s 50th anniversary. Journal International Academy Preventive Medicine In Press, 1979.
- Stone I. Reference 3, Chapter 18, Aging.
- Stone I. Reference 3, Chapters 12, The Common Cold and 13, The Viral Diseases.
- Stone, I. Reference 3, pages 73–74, 1972.
- Stone I. Megadoses of vitamin C Nutrition Today 10:No 3:35, 1975.
- Stone I. Reference 3, Chapter 15, Cancer.
- Stone I. The importance of fully correcting the genetic liver-enzyme disease, hypoascorbemia, in preventive medicine. In vol 2 New Dynamics Of Preventive Medicine, Leon R. Pomeroy, Editor. Stratton Intercontinental Medical Book Corp, New York & London, pages 19–29, 1974.
- Stone I. Cancer therapy in the light of the natural history of ascorbic acid. Journal International Academy Metabology 3:No 1:56-61, 1974.
- Stone I. The genetics of scurvy and the cancer problem. Journal Orthomolecular Psychiatry 5:No 3:183-190, 1976.
- Stone I. Megascorbic therapy of the disease called “leukemia”. Cancer Control Journal 2:No 1:1-4, 1974.
- Cameron E, Pauling L. Vitamin C and cancer. International Journal Environmental Studies, 10:303-305, 1977.
- Stone I. Reference 3, Chapter 16, The Heart, Vascular System and Strokes.
- Libby PS, Stone I. The Hypoascorbemia-Kwashiorkor approach to drug addiction therapy: a pilot study. Journal Orthomolecular Psychiatry 6:No 4:300-308, 1977.
- Stone I. Reference 3, Chapter 18, Aging.
- Irwin Stone (1972). The Healing Factor: Vitamin C Against Disease. Grosset and Dunlap. ISBN 0-448-11693-6.
- Nutrition Today v. 20 (January/February 1985) p. 30.
- Dr. Irwin Stone- A Tribute Allan Cott, M.D, given at the symposium of the Academy of Orthomolecular Psychiatry just after Dr. Stone's death. From Orthomolecular Psychiatry, 1984, Volume ??, Number ?, p. 150
- A History of Medicine By Lois N. Magner, (1992) CRC Press. On page 238 in a chapter on vitamins, gives Stone a key role in their recent popularity and backs up the claims that he was behind the "humans have a genetic lack..." theory.
- Orthomolecular Medicine Hall of fame - Irwin Stone, Ph.D. Retrieved October 2007
- Saul AW, "Hidden in Plain Sight: The Pioneering Work of Frederick Robert Klenner, M.D." online reprint from J Orthomolecular Med, 2007. Vol 22, No 1, p 31-38, Accessed October 2007.
- Forewords by Linus Pauling and Albert Szent-Györgyi to Irwin Stone's* The Healing Factor published 1972
- Papers by Irwin Stone and others
- Megascorbic Prophylaxis and Megascorbic Therapy:A New Orthomolecular Modality in Veterinary Medicine Wendell 0. Belfield, D.V.M. and Irwin Stone, P.C.A. from Journal of the International Academy of Preventive Medicine Volume 2, Number 3, 1975, pp. 10–26