The Latter-day Saints' Apostle to the Indians,
scout, and colonist of American West
|Born||April 6, 1819
Ashtabula County, Ohio
|Died||August 31, 1886
Pleasanton, New Mexico
|Religion||The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church)|
|Spouse(s)||Lucinda Taylor, Rachel Judd, Sarah Priscilla Leavitt, Louisa Boneli|
Jacob Vernon Hamblin (April 2, 1819 – August 31, 1886) was a Western pioneer, Mormon missionary, and diplomat to various Native American tribes of the Southwest and Great Basin. He aided European-American settlement of large areas of southern Utah and northern Arizona, where he was seen as an honest broker between Mormon settlers and the Natives. He is sometimes referred to as the "Buckskin Apostle," or the "Apostle to the Lamanites."
Early life and family
Hamblin was born in Salem, Ohio in Ashtabula County to a family of farmers. He grew up learning farming. He was baptized a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints on March 3, 1842 at the age of twenty-two.
Jacob and Lucinda had 4 children. When Hamblin proposed moving west with the LDS Church which was leaving Nauvoo, Illinois for Utah, Lucinda refused to go. In February 1849, Hamblin and Lucinda decided to end their marriage, and he continued west without her, taking their four children with him. In September of the same year, Hamblin met and married Rachel Judd, a widow, in Council Bluffs, Iowa. With Rachel he had 7 children. He married Sarah Priscilla Leavitt on September 11, 1857 and Louisa Bonelli on November 16, 1865. With Sarah Priscilla he had 10 children, and with Louisa he had 6 children. Priscilla and Louisa were sealed to him in the Endowment House in Salt Lake City.
Conversion to Mormonism and migration west
As an adult, he and his family lived in Wisconsin. Hamblin was injured and thought he would die of his wound. Hamblin prayed that if he survived, he would serve God the rest of his life. Soon after, a woman knocked on his door who said she had felt called to go to his house. A nurse, she had the medicines and poultices needed, and helped heal Hamblin's wound and save his life.
From then on Hamblin turned to God. In 1842, he and his children converted to Mormonism. They moved from Wisconsin to Nauvoo, Illinois, where the Latter-day Saints had gathered. His first wife, Lucinda, left him and their children over their conversion to Mormonism.
"On the 8th of August, 1844, I attended a general meeting of the Saints. Elder Rigdon was there, urging his claims to the presidency of the Church. His voice did not sound like the voice of the true shepherd. When he was about to call a vote of the congregation to sustain him as President of the Church, Elders Brigham Young, Parley P. Pratt and Heber C. Kimball stepped into the stand. Brigham Young remarked to the congregation: "I will manage this voting for Elder Rigdon. He does not preside here. This child" (meaning himself) "will manage this flock for a season." The voice and gestures of the man were those of the Prophet Joseph. The people, with few exceptions, visibly saw that the mantle of the Prophet Joseph Smith had fallen upon Brigham Young. To some it seemed as though Joseph again stood before them. I arose to my feet and said to a man sitting by me, "That is the voice of the true shepherd—the chief of the Apostles."
Hamblin followed the Saints on their migration to Utah, where he settled in Tooele, near Great Salt Lake City in 1850. He became well known for creating good relations between the white settlers and Indians. After an altercation, when his gun failed to fire as he shot at an Indian, Hamblin said God had revealed he was to be a "messenger of peace" to the Indians, and that if he did not thirst for their blood, he should never fall by their hands. In 1854, Hamblin was called by Brigham Young to serve a mission to the southern Paiute and settled at Santa Clara in the vicinity of the modern city of St. George, Utah.
Hamblin's first home there was destroyed by a flash flood. His second wife Rachael saved one of their young children from drowning, but the child soon after died from exposure. Rachael never fully recovered from the exposure she got from the flood. Swearing to avoid the risk of flood, Hamblin built a new home on a hill in Santa Clara.
Owned today by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, it is operated as a house museum, where Mormon missionaries give daily tours.
Utah War and the Mountain Meadows massacre
In August 1857, Brigham Young made Hamblin president of the Santa Clara Indian Mission. Young directed Hamblin by letter to
"continue the conciliatory policy towards the Indians which I have ever commended, and seek by works of righteousness to obtain their love and confidence. Omit promises where you are not sure you can fill them; and seek to unite the hearts of the brethren on that mission, and let all under your direction be united together in holy bonds of love and unity."
Young had become aware in July of an approaching United States army ordered to invade the Utah Territory to put down a supposed "rebellion" among the Mormons. Anticipating what would become known as the Utah War, Young urged Hamblin to "not permit the brethren to part with their guns and ammunition, but save them against the hour of need." He wrote to Hamblin that the Indians "must learn to help us or the United States will kill us both."
In late August, Hamblin traveled north to Salt Lake City with George A. Smith, who had been dispatched to the southern Mormon colonies to warn of the approaching US army and recommend against colonists' trading with non-Mormons then traveling through their territory. At Corn Creek near Fillmore, Utah, Smith, Hamblin, and Thales Haskell encountered the Baker-Fancher party, a wagon train of Arkansans en route to California. Hamblin suggested to them that they stop further south in the grassy Mountain Meadows, where he maintained a homestead at a traditional stopping point on the Old Spanish Trail from New Mexico to California.
Hamblin and his party continued on to Salt Lake City, where he stayed for roughly a week to "conduct Indian business and take a plural wife." This "Indian business" included bringing a delegation of Southern Paiute to meet with LDS church leaders. In Salt Lake City, Hamblin reported later that he was told that the Fanchers had "behaved badly" and had "robbed hen-roosts, and been guilty of other irregularities, and had used abusive language to those who had remonstrated with them. It was also reported that they threatened, when the army came into the north end of the Territory, to get a good outfit from the weaker settlements in the south."
On his way home, Hamblin was met by his adopted Indian son, Albert, who recounted the horror of the slaughter of the Baker-Fancher Party in the infamous Mountain Meadows massacre. In fact, on his trail south, he also met John D. Lee who was on his way to Salt Lake City. In both his autobiography and his testimony at the second trial of Lee for the massacre, Hamblin claimed that to his great distress, Lee admitted to him his role in the killings along with other whites although he placed the blame for the attack on the Paiutes. Many accept Hamblin's account of his meeting with Lee as he was well known for honesty. (Professor A. H. Thompson of the US Geological survey once said, “I would trust my money, my life and my honor in the keeping of Jacob Hamblin, knowing all would be safe”), "However, others believe that Hamblin either did not give a full accounting of events or his testimony amounted to perjury and was given to implicate Lee while shielding other Mormons. Indeed, in his book Mormonism Unveiled, an embittered John D. Lee refers to Hamblin as "Dirty Fingered Jake," and spins tales of Hamblin's attempts to waylay non-Mormon travelers in Utah, kill them, and take their property. He relates, "Hamblin was in Salt Lake City when the Mountain Meadows Massacre took place, and he pretends to have great sympathy with and sorrow for their fate. I can only judge what he would have done towards the massacre had he been home by what he did to help the next train that passed that way."
As Hamblin continued south towards Santa Clara, he was told that a band of Paiutes was planning to attack a second wagon train, the Duke party. Perhaps believing Lee's account that the Indians were primarily responsible for the Mountain Meadows massacre, he quickly returned south to prevent another slaughter. He recounts that he did not himself overtake that wagon train, but as he had been traveling very quickly without sleep he sent Samuel Knight and Dudley Leavitt before him. These overtook the train and were able to negotiate with the Paiutes wherein the Indians took the trains' loose cattle (nearly 500 head) and left the train in peace. Knight and Leavitt continued with the company and saw it safely through to California. Hamblin was later able to return that stock to the Duke party after conferring with those Indians involved.
Upon reaching the massacre site, the diary of Sarah Priscilla Leavitt, Hamblin's third wife, recounts the horrors of her lying in the covered wagon as they got to the scene. Although Hamblin warned her to not look out, she peeked for a few seconds, with which she always held regret. (Note: The Hamblins would not have passed the massacre site on their way from Salt Lake City. The route to Salt Lake comes to the house area from the east and the site is about 3.5 miles to the south.[editorializing]) Hamblin and a few other local men buried all the bodies. The remaining children that survived (some accounts say 17, some say 20) were brought to the Hamblin home that night. Sarah cared for three of the children herself. Eventually, federal agents returned all the children to their Arkansas relatives. Brevet Major J. H. Carelton interviewed Albert, who gave a detailed account of what he saw of the massacre. Later, he was found lying face down dead in a cactus. Sarah wrote in her diary that both she & Jacob felt his knowledge of what really happened on that fateful September 11 day is what got him murdered before he could testify at the trial.
Hamblin spent the rest of 1857 and early 1858 shepherding non-Mormons through Utah on the trail to California and Mormons returning to Utah from outlying settlements in order to participate in its defense should the army attack.
After the conclusion of the Utah War, Hamblin claims to have been willing to testify to his knowledge of the Massacre at the behest of Apostle Smith. However, due to the amnesty proclaimed by the President of the United States to the Mormons, the new governor, Alfred Cumming, did not wish to discuss the matter. Hamblin did, however, testify at John D. Lee's second trial for the massacre in 1876.
Later missions to Native Americans
In 1858 while in Salt Lake City, Hamblin was made a sub-Indian agent. That same year he was called on a mission to the Moquis (Hopis) of Northern Arizona. He traveled southeast through Pipe Springs, crossed the Buckskin Mountain (Kaibab Plateau), and forded the Colorado River at the Crossing of the Fathers which is now under Lake Powell at Padre Bay. This was somewhat north of the later crossing at Lee's Ferry which he discovered. Upon his arrival at the village of Oraibi, he was told by the Hopis that it was prophesied that he and his companions would come and bring the Hopi knowledge which they formerly had. However, they were also told that the Hopi would not cross over the Colorado River to live with the Mormons until the three prophets which had led them to their mesas returned to give them further instructions. (See Hopi mythology). The Hopi also questioned why they should cross the Colorado River to meet the Mormons when they would soon have settlements to their south in any case. Interestingly, at the time there were no plans for Mormon settlements to the south of the Hopi, although Hamblin helped found Mormon settlements on the Little Colorado River years later.
Hamblin went home, but returned on several occasions to keep up good relations with the Hopis and the Navajos. In 1862, three Hopi men accompanied him to Salt Lake City to meet Brigham Young. In 1870 he brought a minor Hopi leader, Toova, and his wife across the Colorado River to visit the Mormon settlements in southern Utah. Tuba eventually joined the LDS church, and invited the Mormons to settle near his village of Moencopi where they founded Tuba City, named in honor of their Hopi friend.
Hamblin was an invaluable diplomat between the Latter-day Saints and the Native Americans, surviving numerous dangerous encounters between the two. In 1870 he also acted as an adviser to John Wesley Powell before his second journey through the Grand Canyon. Hamblin acted as a negotiator to ensure safety for Powell's expedition from local Native tribes. Powell related that Hamblin "speaks [the Indians'] language well and has great influence over the Indians in the region round about. He is a silent, reserved man, and when he speaks it is in a slow, quiet way that inspires great awe." Said a Native Chief to Powell, "We believe in Jacob, and look upon you as a father...We will tell [the other Indians] that [Powell] is Jacob's friend."
Hamblin attributed much of his success with the Indians to his conviction that he "had received from the Lord an assurance that I should never fall by the hands of the Indians, if I did not thirst for their blood." Indeed, on many occasions, Hamblin dealt with hostile Indians with no companion and carrying no weapon to defend himself. During one particularly trying period in 1874, three Navajo Indians were shot by a member of the Butch Cassidy gang in Central Utah. Hamblin had previously promised the Navajos they could safely trade with the Mormons in that area, and Mormons were falsely blamed for the killing. Hamblin was asked by Church President Brigham Young to talk with the angry Navajos and avert war, but Hamblin's local bishop made two desperate attempts to keep him from walking into a "certain death-trap". Jacob refused to return home, stating that "I have been appointed to a mission by the highest authority of God on Earth (Brigham Young). My life is but of small moment compared with the lives of the Saints (fellow Mormons) and the interests of the Kingdom of God." One eye-witness to the events that followed, reported that "no braver man ever lived." Hamblin offered his rules for dealing with the Indians as follows:
- I never talk anything but the truth to them.
- I think it useless to speak of things they cannot comprehend
- I strive by all means to never let them see me in a passion.
- Under no circumstances show fear, thereby showing to them that I have a sound heart and a straight tongue.
- Never approach them in an austere manner nor use more words than are necessary to convey my ideas, not in a higher tone of voice than to be distinctly heard
- Always listen to them when they wish to tell of their grievances, and redress their wrongs, however trifling they may be if possible. If I cannot I let them know I have a desire to do so.
- I never allow them to hear me use profane or obscene language or take any unbecoming course with them.
- I never submit to any unjust demands or submit to coercion under any circumstances, thereby showing them that I govern and am governed by the rule of right not by might.
Hamblin adds, “I believe if the rules that I have mentioned were observed there should be little difficulty on our frontier with the Red Man.”
Hamblin treated the Native Americans as intelligent equals. He said, "some people call the Indians superstitious. I admit the fact, but do not think that they are more so than many who call themselves civilized. There are few people who have not received superstitious traditions from their fathers. The more intelligent part of the Indians believe in one Great Father of all; also in evil influences, and in revelation and prophecy; and in many of their religious rites and ideas, I think they are quite as consistent as the Christian sects of the day."
Hamblin kept a home in Kanab, Utah, and started a ranch in the House Rock Valley in the Arizona Strip at the base of the Vermillion Cliffs. Jacob Lake, Arizona on the Kaibab Plateau north of the Grand Canyon is named after him, as is Jacob Hamblin Arch in Coyote Gulch and Hamblin Wash along the US Highway 89 in Northern Arizona.
||Constructs such as ibid., loc. cit. and idem are discouraged by Wikipedia's style guide for footnotes, as they are easily broken. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references (quick guide), or an abbreviated title. (April 2013)|
- Early Latter-day Saints referred to Native Americans as "Lamanites," a term derived from the Book of Mormon.
- Corbett, Pearson Harris (1952), Jacob Hamblin, The Peacemaker, Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co, p. [page needed], OCLC 1399539
- Miller, Vera Leib (1975), The Jacob Vernon Hamblin family, Tucson: Boyde Done Skyline Printing, p. [page needed], OCLC 33023754
- Hamblin 1909, p. 13
- Ibid, 29.
- Hamblin 1909, p. 41
- Furniss, Norman F. (1960), The Mormon Conflict: 1850-1859, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale, p. 163, OCLC 484414
- Walker, Ronald W. (2003), "'Save the Emigrants': Joseph Clewes on the Mountain Meadows Massacre", BYU Studies 42 (1)
- Hamblin 1909, pp. 42-43
- Linder 2012
- Thompson, A H; Gregory, Herbert E (2009), The Diary of Almon Harris Thompson: Explorations of the Colorado River of the West and Its Tributaries, 1871-1875, Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press and Utah State Historical Society, p. [page needed], ISBN 9780874809626, OCLC 298778927
- Mormonism Unveiled: Or, The Life and Confessions of the Late Mormon Bishop, John D. Lee, 270.
- Hamblin 1909, pp. 43-44
- http://www.mtn-meadows-assoc.com/survivoringchildren.htm[unreliable source?]
- http://www.mtn-meadows-assoc.com/Carelton/maj.htm[unreliable source?]
- Ibid, 55-56.
- McClintock, James H. (1921), Mormon Settlement in Arizona, Phoenix Arizona: Arizona Historian Office, p. 65
- Hamblin 1909, p. [page needed]
- Hartt 1997, p. [page needed]
- Wixom 2008, p. [page needed]
- Wixom 2008, p. [page needed]
- Letter to the Pioche, Nevada Register dated Feb. 5, 1874, submitted by Mr. J. E. Smith[full citation needed]
- Hamblin 1909, p. [page needed]
- Compton, Todd (2013), A Frontier Life: Jacob Hamblin, Explorer and Indian Missionary, Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah Press, ISBN 9781607812340
- Hamblin, Jacob (1909) , Little, James A, ed., Jacob Hamblin: A Narrative of His Personal Experience, Faith Promoting Series (2nd ed.), Salt Lake City: Deseret News
- Haymond, Jay M. (1994), "Hamblin, Jacob", in Powell, Allen Kent, Utah History Encyclopedia, Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, ISBN 0874804256, OCLC 30473917
- Linder, Douglas O. (2012), The Testimony of Jacob Hamblin at the Second Trial of John D. Lee (online only), "Mountain Meadows Massacre Trials (John D. Lee Trials) 1875-76", Famous Trials (University of Missouri–Kansas City School of Law)
- Wixom, Hartt (1998), Jacob Hamblin: His Own Story, St. George, Utah: Dixie State College, OCLC 40390805
- Wixom, Hartt (2008), Jacob Hamblin: A Modern Look at the Frontier Life and Legend of Jacob Hamblin, Springville, Utah: CFI, ISBN 9781555172732, OCLC 35954246
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jacob Hamblin.|
- Register of the Jacob Hamblin Journal, 1868-1886, a collection of Hamblin papers held at Brigham Young University's L. Tom Perry Special Collections
- The Jacob Hamblin Legacy Organization, Inc., a group of descendants of Jacob Hamblin
- The Jacob Hamblin Memorial Committee, a group of Southern Utah residents raising money to build a memorial to Hamblin in Kanab, Utah
- Jacob Hamblin Trail Map by Wade Wixom, at jacobhamblin.com