John Henry, Margrave of Moravia

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John Henry of Moravia
Busta Jan Jindrich detail.jpg
John Henry bust in St. Vitus Cathedral
Margrave of Moravia
Reign 1349 – 12. November 1375
Predecessor Charles IV
Successor Jobst of Moravia
Count of Tyrol
Reign 1435-1341
Spouse Margaret Maultasch of Tyrol (div.in 1342)
Margaret of Opava
Issue Catherine of Moravia
Jobst of Moravia
Elisabeth of Moravia
Anna of Moravia
John Sobieslaw of Moravia
Prokop of Moravia
House House of Luxemburg
Father John of Bohemia
Mother Elisabeth of Bohemia
Born 12 February 1322
Died 12 November 1375
Brno, Moravia
Burial St. Thomas basilika Brno

John Henry of Luxembourg (Czech: Jan Jindřich, German: Johann Heinrich; 12 February 1322 – 12 November 1375)[1] was Count of Tyrol from 1335 to 1341 and Margrave of Moravia from 1349 until his death.

Biography[edit]

He was born at Mělník, the third surviving son of King John of Bohemia from the House of Luxembourg and Queen Elisabeth of Bohemia. John Henry therefore was the younger brother of Emperor Charles IV.

His father John had made attempts to reconcile with his former rival Henry of Gorizia-Tyrol, Duke of Carinthia and Count of Tyrol, whom he had deposed as Bohemian King in 1310. In 1327, his son, John Henry, and Henry's daughter, Margaret Maultasch, were betrothed. Henry had no male heirs and John the Blind expected a considerable enlargement of the Luxembourg lands. John Henry and Margaret married on September 16, 1330 at Innsbruck. Nevertheless Emperor Louis IV in the same year secretly promised the Carinthian duchy including the March of Carniola and large parts of Tyrol to the Austrian dukes Albert II and Otto the Merry from the House of Habsburg.

Thus, after Henry of Gorizia-Tyrol had died in 1335, Emperor Louis IV gave Carinthia and southern Tyrol including the overlordship of Trent and Brixen to the Habsburg dukes, who themselves could refer to their mother Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol, sister of deceased Henry. King John the Blind felt deprived, he put an end to his quarrels with Casimir III of Poland and campaigned the Austrian duchy. A peace was concluded at the city of Enns on October 9, 1336, when John the Blind renounced Carinthia, while Margaret Maultasch and John Henry could inherit Tyrol.

Charles IV acted as regent for his 14-year-old brother John Henry and soon came into conflict with the Tyrolian nobility. Furthermore John Henry and his reportedly ugly wife had developed a strong aversion to each other. Margaret finally took the lead of the insurgence against her husband, when she refused him the access to Castle Tyrol on November 1, 1341. John Henry fled to the Patriarchal State of Aquileia, while his wife claimed that their marriage had never been consummated. Margaret was backed by Emperor Louis IV, who himself had plans to assure the Tyrolian heritage for the House of Wittelsbach. He had the scholars Marsilius of Padua and William of Ockham rendered an opinion that the marriage was not vaild. In 1342, Margaret took her inheritance of Tirol to her next husband, the Emperor's son and Bavarian duke Louis V.

Coat of Arms of John Henry, Margrave of Moravia.

Humiliated, John Henry returned to Bohemia. After his marriage was conclusively divorced according to canon law in 1349, he married Margaret of Troppau (Margaret of Opava), daughter of Nicholas II, Duke of Troppau. Charles IV gave him the March of Moravia as appanage. This marriage produced several sons (none of whom however was able to leave surviving children, so John Henry's line ended in 1411). The eldest was Margrave Jobst of Moravia, the Elector of Brandenburg from 1388 on, who in 1410 became elected King of the Romans, but remained actually a rival king.

After Margaret of Troppau (Margaret of Opava) had died in 1363, John Henry married Margaret of Austria, the daughter of Duke Albert II of Austria and widow of Margaret Maultasch's son Meinhard III of Gorizia-Tyrol.

He is buried at St Thomas's Abbey, in Brno.

Genealogy[edit]

Henry VII
12 July 1275(6) – 24 August 1313
  Margaret of Brabant
4 October 1276 – 14 December 1311
  Wenceslaus II
27 September 1271 – 21 June 1305
  Judith of Habsburg
13 March 1271 – 18 June 1297
         
     
  John of Bohemia
10 August 1296 – 26 August 1346
  Elisabeth of Bohemia
20 January 1292 – 28 September 1330
 
     
   
1
Margaret of Tyrol
1318 – 3 October 1369
OO   16 September 1330, div.1342
2
Margaret of Opava
26 September 1329 – 1363
OO   March 1350
John Henry
12. February 1322 – 12. November 1375
3
Margaret of Austria
1346 – 14. January 1366
OO   26: February 1364
4
Elizabeth of Oettingen

OO   c. 1366
                   
   1    2/1    2/2    2/3    2/4    2/5    2/6  
0 - childless
Catherine of Moravia Duchesse of Falkenberg
1353–1378
Jobst of Moravia

King of the Romans
Oktober 1354–18. January 1411

Elisabeth of Moravia Margravine of Meissen
1355–20. November 1400
Anna of Moravia
1356–98
John Sobieslaw of Moravia

Patriarch of Aquilea
October 1357– 12. November 1394

Prokop of Moravia

younger (titular) Margrave of Moravia
1358–September 1403

   3    4        
0 - childless
0 - childless

Ancestry[edit]

References[edit]