John Oliver Killens
Early life and education
Killens was born in Macon, Georgia, to Charles Myles Killens, Sr, and Willie Lee Killens. His father encouraged him to read Langston Hughes' writings, and his mother, who was president of Dunbar Literary Club, introduced him to poetry. Killens was an enthusiastic reader as a child and was inspired by writers such as Hughes and Richard Wright. His great-grandmother’s tales of slavery were another important factor in his gaining knowledge of traditional black mythology and folklore, which he later incorporated into his writings.
Killens graduated in 1933 from Ballard Normal School in Macon, a private institution run by the American Missionary Association and at the time one of the few secondary schools for blacks in Georgia. Planning to be a lawyer, he attended historically black colleges to study further at the college level and focus on law: Edward Waters College in Jacksonville, Florida, Morris Brown College in Atlanta, Howard University in Washington DC, and in 1939 the Robert H. Terrell Law School in Washington, D.C. In his final year, he left in order to study creative writing at Columbia University in New York.
Killens enlisted in the army during World War II, serving as a member of the Pacific amphibious forces from 1942 to 1945. He spent more than two years in the South Pacific, and rose to the rank of master sergeant.
In 1948, Killens moved to New York, where he worked to establish a literary career. He attended writing classes at Columbia University and New York University. He was an active member of many organizations, including the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) and the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). Around 1950, Killens co-founded with Rosa Guy and others a writers' group that became the Harlem Writers Guild (HWG).
His first novel, Youngblood (1954), dealing with a black Georgia family in the early 1900s, was read and developed at HWG meetings in members' homes. His second novel, And Then We Heard the Thunder (1962), was about the treatment of the black soldiers in the military; it was named by critic Noel Perrin as one of five major works of fiction of World War II. It was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize. His third novel, Sippi (1967), focused on the voting rights struggles by African Americans during the 1960s.
The Cotillion; or, One Good Bull Is Half the Herd (1971) was also nominated for a Pulitzer. It explored upper-class African-American society. (1971). In addition to novels, Killens also wrote plays, screenplays, and many articles and short stories that appeared in publications as diverse as Black Scholar, the New York Times, Ebony and Redbook.
He taught creative-writing programs at Fisk University, Howard University, Columbia University and Medgar Evers College. In 1986, he founded the National Black Writers Conference at Medgar Evers College.
In 1943 Killens married Grace Ward Jones. They had two children together: a son, John Charles, and a daughter, Barbara.
- Youngblood (1954), novel
- And Then We Heard the Thunder (1962), novel
- Black Man's Burden (1965), essays
- Sippi (1967), novel
- The Cotillion; or, One Good Bull Is Half the Herd (1971), novel
- Great Gittin' Up Morning: A Biography of Denmark Vesey (1972)
- A Man Ain't Nothin' But a Man: The Adventures of John Henry (1975)
- The Great Black Russian: The Life and Times of Alexander Pushkin (1989)
- Black Southern Voices: an anthology of fiction, poetry, drama, nonfiction, and critical essays (Meridian, 1992)
- Adam, William, Afro-American Authors. Houghton Mifflin, 1972
- Bloom, Harold, Modern Black American Fiction Writers. Chelsea House Publishers, 1995
- Bolden, Tonya, Strong Men Keep Coming: the book of African American men. J. Wiley and Sons, 1999
- Gilyard, Keith, John Oliver Killens: A Life of Black Literary Activism. University of Georgia Press, 2011. ISBN 978-0820340319.
- Gilyard, Keith, Liberation Memories: The Rhetoric and Politics of John Oliver Killens. Wayne State University Press, 2003.
- John O Killens Biography
- John Oliver Killens
- Harlem Writers Guild
- Emory Library Manuscripts, Archives, & Rare Book Library John Oliver Killens papers, 1937-1987
- See also the entry John Oliver Killens in Brief Biographies: African American Biographies