Kaechon internment camp
|Kaechon internment camp|
|Chosŏn'gŭl||개천 제14호 관리소|
|Revised Romanization||Gaecheon Je14ho Gwalliso|
|McCune–Reischauer||Kaechŏn Che14ho Kwalliso|
|Revised Romanization||Gaecheon Jeongchibeom Suyongso|
|McCune–Reischauer||Kaechŏn Chŏngch'ibŏm Suyongso|
Kaechon internment camp (Hangeul: 개천 제14호 관리소, also spelled Kae'chŏn or Gaecheon) is a forced labor camp in North Korea for political prisoners. The official name is Kwan-li-so (Penal-labor colony) No. 14. It is not to be confused with Kaechon concentration camp (Kyo-hwa-so No. 1), which is located 20 km (12 mi) to the northwest. This place is commonly known as Camp 14.
The camp, established around 1959, is located in Kae'chŏn county, P'yŏngan-namdo province in North Korea. It is situated along the middle reaches of Taedong river, which forms the southern boundary of the camp, and also includes the mountains north of the river like Purok-san. On the southern banks of Taedong river adjoins Bukchang concentration camp (Kwan-li-so No. 18).
Imprisonment at Kaechon internment camp is for life with no chance of release. Prisoners are forced to do hard labour and have to work until they die. Politically unreliable people and their families are deported, without any trial, to the camp, where prisoners live completely isolated from the outside. The camp is approximately 155 km2 (60 sq mi) in area. The camp includes overcrowded barracks that house males, females, and older children separately, and a headquarters with administration and guards housing. Altogether around 15,000 prisoners live in Kaechon internment camp.
The main purpose of the Kaechon internment camp is to keep politically unreliable persons classed "unredeemable" isolated from society, and exploit them with hard labour. The term "unredeemable" is applied to people who want to escape North Korea's repressive government, or people who have spoken harshly about the government or other non-criminal elements. Also actual criminals may be sent to the camp. The labor at the camp is performed in mines and farms with primitive means.
Human rights situation
Many prisoners of the camp were born there under North Korea's "three generations of punishment". This means anyone found guilty of committing a crime, which could be as simple as trying to escape North Korea, would be sent to the camp along with that person's entire family. The subsequent two generations of family members would be born in the camp and must also live their entire lives and die there. As reported by witnesses, the prisoners have to do very hard and dangerous work in mines and other workplaces from 5:30 in the morning until midnight. Even 11-year-old children have to work after school and may see their parents rarely. People are forced to work like slaves and are tortured in case of minor offences. The punishment for violating camp rules ranges from such punishments of having the tip of one's finger cut off, to being tortured for months, to death.
Food rations are very small, consisting of salted cabbage and corn, so that the prisoners are very skinny and weak. Many die of undernourishment, illness, work accidents, and the aftereffects of torture. Many prisoners resort to eating frogs, insects, rats, and snakes in order to survive. Eating rat flesh helps to prevent pellagra, a common disease in the camp which results from the absence of protein and niacin in the diet. In order to eat anything outside of the prison-sanctioned meal, including these animals, prisoners must first get permission from the guards.
Shin Dong-hyuk (born Shin In Geun) (1982–2005 in Kaechon) was born in the camp. His father was imprisoned because two of the father's brothers defected to South Korea during the Korean War. Shin gave testimony of human rights abuses inflicted on him and witnessed by him as prisoner in Kaechon camp:
- When he told the guards his mother and brother attempted to escape (in hopes of acquiring an extra ration of food). Shin was thrown into a small underground cell, where it is impossible to either stand or lie down, and was kept there and tortured for eight months.
- Later Shin was forced to watch the execution of his mother Chang Hye-kyong by hanging and his brother Shin Ha-kun by firing squad. Shin had reported his mother and brother's planned defection to the guards. After being forced to witness the two would-be escapees' executions, he was tortured for eight months.
- When Shin worked in a garment factory at the gulag and accidentally dropped a sewing machine, the foreman hacked off his right middle finger just above the first knuckle, as punishment.
- Shin witnessed dozens of public executions each year.
- Shin saw a six-year-old girl in his school being beaten to death for hoarding 5 kernels of corn.
- When Shin was 12 years old, he was separated from his mother and was rarely allowed to see her. Instead of attending school, the children had to do all kinds of physical work including weeding, harvesting, and carrying dung.
- Between the ages of 13 and 16, Shin was forced to do dangerous construction work and saw many children killed at work; sometimes, four to five children were killed in a day. On one occasion, he saw eight people killed by an accident.
- Shin described how, at the age of 14, he was completely stripped, his legs cuffed and hands tied, and was suspended from the ceiling of his cell. His torturers then lit up a charcoal fire under his back and forced a hook into his skin so that he could not struggle. He still has a number of large scars from the burned flesh and from many other abuses.
- Shin’s cousin was raped by prison guards and died later; when his cousin’s mother wailed, she disappeared and was never seen again.
- Shin saw how 12 fellow prisoners were given toxic water for washing by the guards, got seriously ill within a week, and then disappeared.
- When Shin escaped through the high-voltage electric fence surrounding the camp, his friend Park Yong-chul reached the fence first, and was fatally electrocuted. Shin escaped by climbing over his friend's body.
Kim Yong (1995–1996 in Kaechon, later in Bukchang) was imprisoned when his relationship (which he covered up) to his father and brother, who both were executed as alleged US spies, was identified. Kim witnessed approximately 25 executions in his section of the camp within less than two years.
- Human rights in North Korea
- Kaechon concentration camp
- Pukchang concentration camp
- Yodok concentration camp
- Blaine Harden (16 March 2012). "How one man escaped from a North Korean prison camp". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
- "Committee for Human Rights in North Korea: Satellite Imagery of the North Korean Gulag: Kwan-li-so No. 14 Kaechon Overview, p. 209" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "UNHCR Refworld: Korean gulag escapee speaks out". Unhcr.org. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- Harden, Blaine (July 20, 2009). "N. Korea's Hard-Labor Camps: On the Diplomatic Back Burner". The Washington Post.
- "Committee for Human Rights in North Korea: Satellite Imagery of the North Korean Gulag: Kwan-li-so No. 14 Kaechon Headquarters, p. 211" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- "Committee for Human Rights in North Korea: The Hidden Gulag (Section: Testimony Kwan-li-so No. 14 Kaechon, p. 48)" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- Yang Jung A (2007-07-03). "My Mother is Executed. Yet I am not sad.". Daily NK. Retrieved 2012-12-10.
- Sang-Hun, Choe (July 9, 2007). "Born and raised in a North Korean gulag". The New York Times.
- Anderson Cooper (February 18, 2014). "UN witness describes horrors of North Korea (Anderson Cooper’s remarkable interview with Shin Dong-hyuk, who was born in "Camp 14," a North Korean gulag described in a UN Human Rights report)". 60 Minutes Overtime.
- Shin Dong-Hyuk. ""A Glimpse of Horror", Radio Free Asia , December 1, 2008". Rfa.org. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- "Life Funds for North Korean Refugees (NGO): I was a Political Prisoner at Birth in North Korea". Northkoreanrefugees.com. 1982-11-19. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- Evie Salomon (February 18, 2014). "UN witness describes horrors of North Korea". WECT.
- "North Korea: Political Prison Camps". Amnesty International. May 4, 2011. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
- Choe Sang-Hun (9 July 2007). "Born and raised in a North Korean gulag". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 March 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
- "Escape From "Total-Control Zone", North Korea’s Papillon". Daily NK. May 11, 2007. Retrieved April 25, 2011.
- "Escapee Tells of Horrors in North Korean Prison Camp". Washington Post. 11 December 2008.
- "Born and Raised in a North Korean Prison Camps". ABC News. 30 October 2007. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
- "Medical Report and History of Shin Dong-hyuk". Life Funds for North Korean Refugees. 9 July 2007. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
- "I was a Political Prisoner at Birth in North Korea". Life Funds for North Korean Refugees. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- "The Hidden Gulag – Exposing Crimes against Humanity in North Korea’s Vast Prison System (p. 51 - 52)". The Committee for Human Rights in North Korea. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
- "Committee for Human Rights in North Korea] – Overview on North Korean Prison Camps with Testimonies and Satellite Photographs". HRNK.org.
- "Life Funds for North Korean Refugees (NGO)". NorthKoreanRefugees.com. September 2007. Political prisoner Shin Dong-hyuk tells about his life in the camp
- "Born and raised in a North Korean gulag". New York Times. July 7, 2007.
- "Escapee Tells of Horrors in North Korean Prison Camp". Washington Post. December 11, 2008.
- "Citizens' Alliance for North Korean Human Rights". Eng.NKHumanRights.or.kr. Witness accounts by North Korean refugees
- "Escape from 'Total Control Zone' - North Korea’s Papillon". The Daily NK. May 11, 2007.
- "One Free Korea: Camps 14 and 18, North Korea: Satellite Imagery". FreeKorea.us. Detailed satellite images with comprehensive explanations
- Blaine Harden (March 29, 2012). Escape from Camp 14: One Man's Remarkable Odyssey from North Korea to Freedom in the West (hardcoverISBN 978-0670023325.). Viking. 224 pages.