Polish noble Stanisław Antoni Szczuka (1652-1710) in a representative national Polish outfit. A red kontusz tied with a pas kontuszowy. Underneath a żupan with a low collar. Left hand holds a fur cap with a low band. Characteristic hair and moustache. Unknown artist.
The kontusz was a long robe, usually reaching to below the knees, with a set of decorative buttons down the front. The sleeves were long and loose, on hot days worn untied, thrown on the back. In winter a fur lining could be attached to the kontusz, or a delia worn over it. The kontusz was usually of a vivid colour, and the lining was of a contrasting hue. The kontusz was tied with a long, wide sash called a pas kontuszowy.
The kontusz was more of a decorative garment than a useful one. Tradition states that the first kontusze were worn by szlachta who captured them from Ottomans to display as loot.
Throwing kontusz sleeves on one's back and stroking one's moustache was considered to be a signal of readiness for a fight.