Lilium bosniacum, together with Lilium albanicum and Lilium jankae have always been treated as varieties of Lilium carneolicum. However, extensive DNA-analyses have shown that this group is polyphyletic. Therefore, on The Genus Lilium they are treated as separate species.
Lilium bosniacum Beck ex Fritsch 1909 Section 3b Syn.: L. carniolicum var. bosniacum
Bulb: ovoid, 6–7 cm in diameter, yellowish.
Stem: 30–90 cm.
Leaves: densely scattered, horizontal with tips curved upwards, narrowly lanceolate with slightly hairy margins.
Flowers: 1–6 in a raceme, nodding, fragrant. Tepals strongly revolute, typical turk's cap-shape, wax-like texture, yellow to orange WITHOUT spots, ~6 cm in diameter. Seeds delayed hypogeal germination. Flowering time ~July. 2n=24.
Origin: Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Golden Lily is a symbol of the Bosnian Kingdom, Bosnia and Bosniak people. It has been used in the Bosnian Kingdom on flags and coat's of arms. The Coat of arms used by the members of the House of Kotromanić consisted of six golden lilies on a blue background with a white ribbon. After Bosnia and Herzegovina gained independence from Yugoslavia on 1 March 1992. Lily's were brought back on the Bosnian flag. The flag of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina consisted of the coat of arms of golden lilies on a white background.
In 1998, after the protests of political representatives of the former Herceg-Bosna and Republika Srpska, the flag of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was replaced. However, Bosniaks continue to use the coat of arms and flag with lilies in the appropriate cultural conditions, and on the coats of arms of some cantons and municipalities the lily is used as a symbol of Bosniaks.
- I. Resetnik, Z. Liber, Z. Satovic, P. Cigic, T. Nikolic: Molecular phylogeny and systematics of the Lilium carniolicum group (Liliaceae) based on nuclear ITS sequences, in: Plant Systematics and Evolution, 265: 45–58 (2007)
- Nursel Ikinci, Christoph Oberprieler, Adil Güner: On the origin of European lilies: phylogenetic analysis of Lilium section Liriotypus (Liliaceae) using sequences of the nuclear ribosomal transcribed spacers, In: Willdenowia 36, 2006, p. 647-656.
- Muratović, E., Bogunić, F., Soljan, D., & Siljak-Yakovlev, S. 2005: Does Lilium bosniacum merit species rank? A classical and molecular-cytogenetic analysis. – Pl. Syst. Evol. 252: 97–109.
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