List of accelerators in particle physics

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A list of particle accelerators used for particle physics experiments. Some early particle accelerators that more properly did nuclear physics, but existed prior to the separation of particle physics from that field, are also included. Although a modern accelerator complex usually has several stages of accelerators, only accelerators whose output has been used directly for experiments are listed.

Early accelerators[edit]

These all used single beams with fixed targets. They tended to have very briefly run, inexpensive, and unnamed experiments.

Cyclotrons[edit]

Main article: Cyclotron
Accelerator Location Years of
operation
Shape Accelerated Particle Kinetic
Energy
Notes and discoveries made
23 cm cyclotron University of California, Berkeley 1931 Circular H2+ 1.0 MeV Proof of concept
28 cm cyclotron University of California, Berkeley 1932 Circular Proton 1.2 MeV
68 cm cyclotron University of California, Berkeley 1932–1936 Circular Deuteron 4.8 MeV Investigated deuteron-nucleus interactions
94 cm cyclotron University of California, Berkeley 1937–1938 Circular Deuteron 8 MeV Discovered many isotopes
152 cm cyclotron University of California, Berkeley 1939- Circular Deuteron 16 MeV Discovered many isotopes
467 cm cyclotron Berkeley Rad Lab[1] 1942- Circular Various >100 MeV Research on uranium isotope separation
Calutrons Oak Ridge National Laboratory 1943- "Horseshoe" Uranium nuclei Used to separate isotopes for the Manhattan project
95-inch cyclotron Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory 1949–2002 Circular Proton 160 MeV Used for nuclear physics 1949 - ~ 1961, development of clinical proton therapy until 2002
Isochronous cyclotron[1] University of California, Berkeley 1950– Circular Various 50-590 MeV Used for nuclear and particle physics, proton therapy, and commercial production of radionuclides

[1] First accelerator built at the current Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory site, then known as the Berkeley Radiation Laboratory ("Rad Lab" for short)

Other early accelerator types[edit]

Accelerator Location Years of
operation
Shape
and size
Accelerated
particle
Kinetic
Energy
Notes and discoveries made
Cockcroft and Walton's
electrostatic accelerator
Cavendish Laboratory 1932 See Cockroft-
Walton generator
Proton 0.7 MeV First to artificially split the nucleus (Lithium)

Synchrotrons[edit]

Main article: Synchrotron
Accelerator Location Years of
operation
Shape and size Accelerated
particle
Kinetic Energy Notes and discoveries made Reference(s)
Cosmotron Brookhaven
National Laboratory
1953–1968 Circular ring
(72 meters around)
Proton 3.3 GeV Discovery of V particles, first artificial production of some mesons.
Birmingham
Synchrotron
University of Birmingham 1953–1967 Proton 1 GeV
Bevatron Berkeley Rad Lab i.e. LBNL 1954-~1970 "Race track" Proton 6.2 GeV strange particle experiments, Antiproton and antineutron discovered, resonances discovered
Bevalac, combination of SuperHILAC linear accelerator, a diverting tube, then the Bevatron Berkeley Rad Lab i.e. LBNL ~1970-1993 linear accelerator followed by "Race track" any and all sufficiently stable nuclei could be accelerated observation of compressed nuclear matter. Depositing ions in tumors in cancer research.
Saturne Saclay, France 3 GeV
Synchrophasotron Dubna, Russia December 1957 – 2003 10 GeV
Zero Gradient
Synchrotron
Argonne National
Laboratory
1963–1979 12.5 GeV
Proton Synchrotron CERN 1959–present Circular ring
(600 meters around)
Proton 28 GeV Used to feed ISR, SPS, LHC
Proton Synchrotron Booster CERN 1972–present Circular Synchrotron Protons and ions 1.4 GeV Used to feed PS, ISOLDE
Super Proton Synchrotron CERN 1980–present Circular Synchrotron Protons and ions 480 GeV COMPASS, OPERA and ICARUS at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso
Alternating Gradient Synchrotron Brookhaven
National Laboratory
1960- Circular ring
(808 meters around)
proton (unpolarized and polarized), deuteron, helium-3, copper, gold, uranium 33 GeV J/Ψ, muon neutrino, CP violation in kaons, injects heavy ions and polarized protons into RHIC

Fixed-target accelerators[edit]

More modern accelerators that were also run in fixed target mode; often, they will also have been run as colliders, or accelerated particles for use in subsequently built colliders.

High intensity hadron accelerators (Meson and neutron sources)[edit]

Accelerator Location Years of
operation
Shape and size Accelerated Particle Kinetic Energy Notes and discoveries made
High Current Proton Accelerator Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (originally Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility) Los Alamos National Laboratory 1972–Present Linear (800 m)
and
Circular (30 m)
Protons 800 MeV Neutron Materials Research, Proton Radiography, High Energy Neutron Research, Ultra Cold Neutrons
PSI, HIPA High Intensity 590 MeV Proton Accelerator PSI, Villigen, Switzerland 1974 - present 0.8 Mev CW, 72 MeV Injector 2,

590 MeV Ringcyclotron

Protons 590 MeV, 2.4 mA, =1.4 MW Highest beam power, used for meson and neutron production with applications in materials science
TRIUMF Cyclotron TRIUMF, Vancouver BC 1974 - present Circular H- ion 500 MeV Not an early accelerator, but a re-envisioning of the cyclotron concept, having multiple beam extractions, and hosting many multi-year experiments. Since its inception, has been the world's largest cyclotron, at 17.9m; six sector magnet configuration, with curving outer tips of pole pieces reflecting the effect of relativity on the cyclotron relation at its full acceleration velocity
ISIS neutron source Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton,

Oxfordshire, United Kingdom

1984–present H- Linac followed by proton RCS Protons 800 MeV
Spallation Neutron Source Oak Ridge National Laboratory 2006–Present Linear (335 m)
and
Circular (248 m)
Protons 800 MeV -
1 GeV
Highest power operational pulsed proton beam in the world
J-PARC RCS Tōkai, Ibaraki 2007–Present Triangular, 348m circumference Protons 3 GeV Used for Material and Life sciences Experimental Facility and input to JPARC Main Ring

Electron and low intensity hadron accelerators[edit]

Accelerator Location Years of
operation
Shape
and size
Accelerated
particle
Kinetic
Energy
Experiments Notes
Antiproton Accumulator CERN 1980-1996 Design study
Antiproton collector CERN 1986-1996 Antiprotons Design study
Antiproton Decelerator CERN 2000-present Storage ring Protons and antiprotons 26 GeV ATHENA, ATRAP, ASACUSA, ACE, ALPHA, AEGIS Design study
Low Energy Antiproton Ring CERN 1982-1996 Antiprotons PS210 Design study
Cambridge Electron Accelerator Harvard University and MIT, Cambridge, MA 1962-1974[2] 236 ft diameter synchrotron[3] Electrons 6 GeV [2]
SLAC Linac SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory 1966–present 3 km linear
accelerator
Electron/
Positron
50 GeV Repeatedly upgraded, used to feed PEP, SPEAR, SLC, and PEP-II
Fermilab Booster Fermilab 1970–present Circular Synchrotron Protons 8 GeV MiniBooNE
Fermilab Main Injector Fermilab 1995–present Circular Synchrotron Protons and antiprotons 150 GeV MINOS, MINERνA, NOνA
Fermilab Main Ring Fermilab 1970–1995 Circular Synchrotron Protons and antiprotons 400 GeV (until 1979), 150 GeV thereafter
Bates Linear Accelerator Middleton, MA 1967–2005 500 MeV recirculating linac and storage ring Polarized electrons 1 GeV
Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 1995–present 6 GeV recirculating linac (upgrading to 12 GeV) Polarized electrons 6 GeV DVCS, PrimEx II, Qweak First large-scale deployment of superconducting RF technology.
ELSA Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Germany 1987–present Synchrotron and stretcher (Polarized) electrons 3.5 GeV Crystal Barrel
MAMI Mainz, Germany 1.5 GeV accelerator Polarized electrons
Tevatron Fermilab 1983–2011 Superconducting Circular Synchrotron Protons 980 GeV
Universal Linear Accelerator (UNILAC) GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt, Germany 1974–Present Linear (120 m) Ions of all naturally occurring elements
Schwerionensynchrotron (SIS18) GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt, Germany 1990–Present Synchrotron with 271 m circumference Ions of all naturally occurring elements U: 50-1000 MeV/u
Ne: 50-2000 MeV/u
p: 4,5 GeV
J-PARC Main Ring Tōkai, Ibaraki 2009–Present Triangular, 500m diameter Protons 30 GeV J-PARC Hadron Experimental Facility, T2K Can also provide 8 GeV beam
ALBA CELLS [4]
Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain
2010-Present Synchrotron with 270 m circumference (Polarized) electrons 3 GeV MSPD Material Sciences and Powder Diffraction, MISTRAL X-ray microscopy, NCD Non-Crystalline Diffraction, XALOC Macromolecular Crystallography, CLÆSS Core-Level Absorption & Emission Spectroscopies, CIRCE Photoemission Spectroscopy and Microscopy, BOREAS Resonant absorption and scattering

Colliders[edit]

Electron-positron colliders[edit]

Accelerator Location Years of
operation
Shape
and circumference
Electron
energy
Positron
energy
Experiments Notable Discoveries
AdA Frascati, Italy; Orsay, France 1961–1964 Circular, 3 meters 250 MeV 250 MeV Touschek effect (1963); first ee interactions recorded (1964)
Princeton-Stanford (ee) Stanford, California 1962–1967 Two-ring, 12 m 300 MeV 300 MeV ee interactions
VEP-1 (ee) INP, Novosibirsk, Soviet Union 1964–1968 Two-ring, 2.70 m 130 MeV 130 MeV ee scattering; QED radiative effects confirmed
VEPP-2 INP, Novosibirsk, Soviet Union 1965–1974 Circular, 11.5 m 700 MeV 700 MeV OLYA, CMD multihadron production (1966), e+e→φ (1966), e+e→γγ (1971)
SPEAR SLAC 1972-1990(?) Mark I, Mark II, Mark III Discovery of Charmonium states
VEPP-2M BINP, Novosibirsk 1974–2000 Circular, 17.88 m 700 MeV 700 MeV ND, SND, CMD-2 e+e cross sections, radiative decays of ρ, ω, and φ mesons
DORIS DESY 1974–1993 Circular, 300m 5 GeV 5 GeV ARGUS, Crystal Ball, DASP, PLUTO Oscillation in neutral B mesons
PETRA DESY 1978–1986 Circular, 2 km 20 GeV 20 GeV JADE, MARK-J, CELLO, PLUTO, TASSO Discovery of the gluon in three jet events
CESR Cornell University 1979–2002 Circular, 768m 6 GeV 6 GeV CUSB, CHESS, CLEO, CLEO-2, CLEO-2.5, CLEO-3 First observation of B decay, charmless and "radiative penguin" B decays
PEP SLAC 1980-1990(?) Mark II
SLC SLAC 1988-1998(?) Addition to
SLAC Linac
45 GeV 45 GeV SLD, Mark II First linear collider
LEP CERN 1989–2000 Circular, 27 km 104 GeV 104 GeV Aleph, Delphi, Opal, L3 Only 3 light (m ≤ mZ/2) weakly interacting neutrinos exist, implying only three generations of quarks and leptons
BEPC China 1989–2004 Circular, 240m 2.2 GeV 2.2 GeV Beijing Spectrometer (I and II)
VEPP-4M BINP, Novosibirsk 1994- Circular, 366m 6.0 GeV 6.0 GeV KEDR Precise measurement of psi-meson masses, two-photon physics
PEP-II SLAC 1998–2008 Circular, 2.2 km 9 GeV 3.1 GeV BaBar Discovery of CP violation in B meson system
KEKB KEK 1999–2009 Circular, 3 km 8.0 GeV 3.5 GeV Belle Discovery of CP violation in B meson system
DAΦNE Frascati, Italy 1999- Circular, 98m 0.7 GeV 0.7 GeV KLOE Crab-waist collisions (2007)
CESR-c Cornell University 2002–2008 Circular, 768m 6 GeV 6 GeV CHESS, CLEO-c
VEPP-2000 BINP, Novosibirsk 2006- Circular, 24.4m 1.0 GeV 1.0 GeV SND, CMD-3 Round beams (2007)
BEPC II China 2008- Circular, 240m 3.7 GeV 3.7 GeV Beijing Spectrometer III

Hadron colliders[edit]

Accelerator Location Years of
operation
Shape
and size
Particles
collided
Beam
energy
Experiments
Intersecting
Storage Rings
CERN 1971–1984 Circular rings
(948 m around)
Proton/
Proton
31.5 GeV
Super
Proton Synchrotron
/SppS
CERN 1981–1984 Circular ring
(6.9 km around)
Proton/
Antiproton
270-315 GeV UA1, UA2
Tevatron
Run I
Fermilab 1992–1995 Circular ring
(6.3 km around)
Proton/
Antiproton
900 GeV CDF, D0
Tevatron
Run II
Fermilab 2001–2011 Circular ring
(6.3 km around)
Proton/
Antiproton
980 GeV CDF, D0
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)
polarized proton mode
Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York 2001–present Hexagonal rings
(3.8 km circumference)
Polarized Proton/
Proton
100-255 GeV PHENIX, STAR
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)
ion mode
Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York 2000–present Hexagonal rings
(3.8 km circumference)
d-197Au79+;

63Cu29+-63Cu29+;
63Cu29+-197Au79+;
197Au79+-197Au79+;
238U92+-238U92+

3.85-100 GeV
per nucleon
STAR, PHENIX, BRAHMS, PHOBOS
Large Hadron Collider (LHC)
proton mode
CERN 2008–present Circular rings
(27 km circumference)
Proton/
Proton
4 TeV
(design: 7 TeV)
ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, LHCf, TOTEM
Large Hadron Collider (LHC)
ion mode
CERN 2008–present Circular rings
(27 km circumference)
208Pb82+-208Pb82+ 2.76 TeV
per nucleon
ALICE, ATLAS, CMS

Electron-proton colliders[edit]

Accelerator Location Years of
operation
Shape
and size
Electron
energy
Proton
energy
Experiments
HERA DESY 1992–2007 Circular ring
(6336 meters around)
27.5 GeV 920 GeV H1, ZEUS, HERMES experiment, HERA-B

Light sources[edit]

Hypothetical accelerators[edit]

Besides the real accelerators listed above, there are hypothetical accelerators often used as hypothetical examples or optimistic projects by particle physicists.

  • Eloisatron (Eurasiatic Long Intersecting Storage Accelerator) was a project of INFN headed by Antonio Zichichi at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture in Erice, Sicily. The center-of-mass energy was planned to be 200 TeV, and the size was planned to span parts of Europe and Asia.
  • Fermitron was an accelerator sketched by Enrico Fermi on a notepad in the 1940s proposing an accelerator in stable orbit around the earth.
  • Planckatron is an accelerator with a center-of-mass energy of the order of the Planck scale. It is estimated that the radius of the Planckatron would have to be roughly the radius of the Milky Way.
  • Arguably also in this category falls the Zevatron, a hypothetical source for ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chao, Alexander W.; et al (2013). Handbook of Accelerator Physics and Engineering (2nd ed.). World Scientific. ISBN 978-981-4417-17-4. 
  2. ^ a b "Cambridge Electron Accelerator (Cambridge, Mass.) Records of the Cambridge Electron Accelerator : an inventory". Harvard University Library. November 15, 2006. Retrieved January 2, 2012. 
  3. ^ Rothenberg, Peter J. (October 16, 1958). "An MIT-Harvard Project: The Electron Accelerator". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved January 2, 2012. 
  4. ^ "CELLS institutional web". 

External links[edit]