List of flags of convenience

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Countries listed as having a flag of convenience by the ITF.

The International Transport Workers' Federation maintains a list of 34 national registries it considers to be flag of convenience registries in regard to ship registration.[1]

Criteria[edit]

In developing the list, the ITF considers "ability and willingness of the flag state to enforce international minimum social standards on its vessels,"[2] the "degree of ratification and enforcement of ILO Conventions and Recommendations,"[2] and "safety and environmental record."[2] The following registries are on the ITF list (with figures sourced from the CIA World Factbook):

Nations[edit]

Flag of convenience registries and statistics (of ships of 1,000 GRT and greater)
Registry Ships Registered Foreign-owned ships Percent Foreign Foreign-owned ship profile Remarks
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda International Shipping Register[3] 1,257[4] 1,215[4] 97% Germany 1094, Denmark 20, Netherlands 17, Latvia 16, Estonia 10, Iceland 10, Norway 9, Switzerland 7, Turkey 7, US 7, Greece 4, Lithuania 3, Russia 3, New Zealand 2, Poland 2, Albania 1, Colombia 1, Mexico 1, UK 1[4]
The Bahamas Bahamas Maritime Authority 1,160[5] 1,063[5] 92% Greece 225, Norway 186, US 109, Canada 96, Japan 88, Denmark 69, Poland 34, Germany 30, Cyprus 23, Netherlands 23, UAE 23, UK 18, Saudi Arabia 16, Bermuda 15, France 15, Malaysia 13, Sweden 11, Finland 8, Monaco 8, Singapore 7, Angola 6, Belgium 6, Guernsey 6, Spain 6, Thailand 4, Hong Kong 3, Ireland 3, Turkey 3, Indonesia 2, Jordan 2, Montenegro 2, Nigeria 2, Australia 1, Brazil 1, Croatia 1, Italy 1, Kuwait 1, South Korea 1, Switzerland 1[5][6]
Barbados Barbados Maritime Ship Registry 109[7] 83[7] 76% Norway 38, Greece 14, Canada 11, UK 6, Iran 5, Sweden 4, Lebanon 2, Syria 1, Turkey 1, UAE 1[7]
Belize International Merchant Marine Registry of Belize 247[8] 152[8] 62% China 61, Russia 30, Turkey 16, Latvia 9, Ukraine 6, Singapore 4, Syria 4, UK 4, Italy 3, UAE 3, Greece 2, Norway 2, Bulgaria 1, Croatia 1, Estonia 1, Iceland 1, Lithuania 1, Netherlands 1, Switzerland 1, Thailand 1[8] China refuses diplomatic relations with Belize
Bermuda Bermuda Department of Maritime Administration[9] 139[10] 105[10] 76% US 26, Germany 14, Sweden 14, UK 14, Nigeria 11, Greece 8, Norway 5, Hong Kong 4, Israel 3, Japan 2, Monaco 2, France 1, Ireland 1[10]
Bolivia Bolivia 18[11] 5[11] 28% Syria 4, UK 1[11] Bolivia is a landlocked nation
Cambodia International Ship Registry of Cambodia 544[12] 352[12] 65% China 177, Russia 50, Ukraine 35, Syria 22, Turkey 15, Hong Kong 10, South Korea 10, Lebanon 5, Cyprus 4, Egypt 4, Singapore 3, Canada 2, Greece 2, Indonesia 2, UAE 2, Belgium 1, Estonia 1, French Polynesia 1, Gabon 1, Ireland 1, Japan 1, Taiwan 1, UK 1, Vietnam 1[12]
Cayman Islands Cayman Islands Shipping Registry[13] 116[14] 102[14] 88% US 57, Japan 23, Greece 9, Italy 7, Germany 3, UK 2, Switzerland 1[14]
Comoros Maritime Administration of the Union of Comoros 149[15] 73[15] 49% Russia 12, Ukraine 10, Turkey 8, UAE 8, Pakistan 5, Syria 5, Bulgaria 4, Greece 4, Cyprus 2, Kenya 2, Latvia 2, Lebanon 2, US 2, Bangladesh 1, China 1, Kuwait 1, Lithuania 1, Nigeria 1, Norway 1, UK 1[15]
Curaçao Curaçao Directorate of Shipping and Maritime Affairs 120[16] 101[16] 84% Netherlands 52, Germany 32, Turkey 8, Angola 2, Norway 2, Cuba 1, Denmark 1, Estonia 1, Hong Kong 1, Sweden 1[16] Figures are from most recent World Factbook data listed for Netherlands Antilles.
Cyprus Republic of Cyprus Department of Merchant Shipping 838[17] 622[17] 74% Greece 201, Germany 192, Russia 46, Poland 24, Netherlands 23, France 16, Japan 16, Norway 14, Iran 10, UK 7, China 6, Denmark 6, Estonia 6, Italy 6, Spain 6, Slovenia 5, Sweden 5, US 5, India 4, Belgium 3, Ireland 3, UAE 3, Ukraine 3, Canada 2, Hong Kong 2, Portugal 2, Angola 1, Austria 1, Bermuda 1, Philippines 1, Singapore 1, Turkey 1[17]
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea 5[18] 1[18] 20% Norway 1[18]
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands 37[19] 28[19] 76% Norway 13, Sweden 11, Iceland 4[19]
France French International Ship Register[20] 162[21] 151[21] 93% UK 39, Cyprus 16, Bahamas 15, Luxembourg 15, Malta 8, Belgium 7, Marshall Islands 7, Panama 7, Norway 5, Hong Kong 4, US 4, Morocco 3, Singapore 3, Ireland 2, Italy 2, Netherlands 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, South Korea 2, Taiwan 2, Bermuda 1, Canada 1, Egypt 1, Indonesia 1, Mexico 1, unknown 1[21]
Georgia (country) Georgia 142[22] 95[22] 67% Syria 24, Turkey 14, China 10, Ukraine 10, Egypt 7, Romania 7, Russia 6, UK 5, Hong Kong 3, Italy 2, UAE 2, Bulgaria 1, Israel 1, Latvia 1, Lebanon 1, US 1[22]
Germany German International Ship Register 427[23] 6[23] 1% Finland 3, Switzerland 2, Netherlands 1[23]
Gibraltar Gibraltar Ship Registry 267[24] 254[24] 95% Germany 123, Norway 46, Netherlands 34, Sweden 11, Greece 8, Denmark 7, UK 6, UAE 5, Italy 4, Morocco 4, Finland 2, Belgium 1, Cyprus 1, Iceland 1, Jersey 1[24]
Honduras Honduras 88[25] 47[25] 53% Singapore 11, South Korea 6, Bahrain 5, Greece 4, Japan 4, China 2, Egypt 2, Lebanon 2, Thailand 2, Canada 1, Chile 1, Israel 1, Montenegro 1, Panama 1, Taiwan 1, UAE 1, UK 1, US 1[25] China refuses diplomatic relations with Honduras
Jamaica Jamaica Ship Registry[26] 14[27] 14[27] 100% Germany 10, Greece 3, Denmark 1[27]
Lebanon Lebanese Bureau of Shipping 29[28] 2[28] 7% Syria 2[28]
Liberia Liberian International Ship & Corporate Registry 2,771[29] 2,581[29] 93% Germany 1185, Greece 505, Russia 109, Japan 110, Taiwan 94, US 53, Hong Kong 48, Italy 47, Norway 38, UAE 37, Israel 34, UK 32, Netherlands 31, Switzerland 25, Singapore 22, UK 22, Brazil 20, Saudi Arabia 20, Turkey 16, Poland 13, Sweden 12, Ukraine 10, Chile 9, Cyprus 9, Denmark 8, India 8, Monaco 8, Slovenia 7, Gibraltar 5, Latvia 5, Qatar 5, Bermuda 4, China 4, Indonesia 4, Nigeria 4, Egypt 3, Romania 3, Canada 2, South Korea 2, Angola 1, Argentina 1, Australia 1, Belgium 1, Croatia 1, Lebanon 1, Syria 1, Uruguay 1[29]
Malta Transport Malta 1,650[30] 1,437[30] 87% Greece 469, Turkey 233, Germany 135, Norway 96, Iran 48, Italy 45, Russia 45, Denmark 34, US 34, Cyprus 32, Ukraine 29, Poland 21, UK 21, Switzerland 20, Estonia 16, Bermuda 15, Bulgaria 8, France 8, Latvia 8, Spain 8, Angola 7, Belgium 7, Romania 7, China 6, Croatia 6, Lebanon 6, Canada 5, Japan 5, Libya 5, Oman 5, Hong Kong 4, Ireland 4, Singapore 4, Slovenia 4, Syria 4, Finland 3, India 3, Israel 3, Kuwait 3, Luxembourg 3, Monaco 3, Netherlands 3, Portugal 3, Saudi Arabia 2, South Korea 2, Azerbaijan 1, Egypt 1, Malaysia 1, Sweden 1, UAE 1[30]
Marshall Islands International Registries, Inc. (Marshall Islands) 1,593[31] 1,468[31] 92% Greece 408, Germany 248, US 200, Norway 75, Turkey 70, Japan 59, South Korea 41, Cyprus 40, Bermuda 35, Monaco 30, Singapore 30, Qatar 29, Netherlands 21, Latvia 19, China 14, Croatia 12, Switzerland 12, UAE 12, UK 12, Jersey 11, Malaysia 11, India 10, Canada 8, Taiwan 8, Denmark 7, France 7, Ireland 6, Slovenia 6, Russia 5, Hong Kong 3, UK 3, Iraq 2, Kuwait 2, Mexico 2, Romania 2, Belgium 1, Brazil 1, Egypt 1, Indonesia 1, Italy 1, Pakistan 1, Sweden 1, Ukraine 1[31] China refuses diplomatic relations with Marshall Islands
Mauritius Ministry of Public Infrastructure, National Development Unit, Land Transport, & Shipping (Mauritius) 4[32] 0[32] 0%
Moldova Moldova Ship Registration 121[33] 63[33] 52% Turkey 18, Ukraine 14, Egypt 5, Russia 5, Syria 5, Yemen 4, UK 3, Israel 2, Romania 2, Bulgaria 1, Denmark 1, Greece 1, Lebanon 1, Pakistan 1[33] Moldova is a landlocked nation.
Mongolia Mongolia Ship Registry 57[34] 44[34] 77% Vietnam 33, Singapore 3, Indonesia 2, Japan 2, Russia 2, North Korea 1, Ukraine 1[34] Mongolia is a landlocked nation
Burma Department of Marine Administration (Myanmar) 29[35] 2[35] 7% Germany 1, Japan 1[35]
North Korea North Korea 158[36] 13[36] 8% Syria 4, China 3, UAE 2, Belgium 1, Nigeria 1, Singapore 1, South Korea 1[36]
Panama Autoridad Marítima de Panamá 6,413[37] 5,162[37] 80% Japan 2372, China 534, Greece 379, South Korea 373, Taiwan 328, Hong Kong 144, Singapore 92, US 90, UAE 83, Norway 81, Turkey 62, Russia 49, Vietnam 43, Denmark 41, UK 37, Syria 34, Spain 30, Bermuda 27, Italy 25, Germany 24, India 24, Switzerland 15, Chile 14, Venezuela 13, Kuwait 12, Malaysia 12, Egypt 11, Jordan 11, Monaco 11, Saudi Arabia 11, Indonesia 10, Oman 10, Portugal 10, Peru 9, Ukraine 8, France 7, Bahamas 6, Bulgaria 6, Canada 6, Netherlands 6, Nigeria 6, Thailand 6, Mexico 5, UK 5, Argentina 5, Bangladesh 5, Cyprus 5, Iran 5, Philippines 5, Australia 4, Albania 4, Yemen 4, Brazil 3, Burma 3, Ecuador 3, Lithuania 3, Pakistan 3, Romania 3, Colombia 2, Croatia 2, Cuba 2, Finland 2, Lebanon 2, Maldives 2, Malta 2, Sweden 2, Tanzania 2, Belgium 1, Gabon 1, Gibraltar 1, Ireland 1, Israel 1, Luxembourg 1, Qatar 1[37] China refuses diplomatic relations with Panama
São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé and Príncipe 3[38] 2[38] 67% China 1, Greece 1[38] China refuses diplomatic relations with São Tomé and Príncipe
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines SVG Maritime Administration (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines)[39] 412[40] 325[40] 79% China 65, Greece 42, US 18, Latvia 15, Norway 13, Turkey 13, Ukraine 12, Russia 11, Sweden 10, Bulgaria 9, Denmark 9, Lithuania 9, Syria 9, Croatia 8, Estonia 8, Switzerland 7, Belgium 7, UK 6, Hong Kong 5, Singapore 5, Italy 4, Cyprus 3, Germany 3, Israel 3, Japan 3, Poland 3, UAE 3, Egypt 2, France 2, Guyana 2, Kenya 2, Lebanon 2, Monaco 2, Austria 1, Azerbaijan 1, Bangladesh 1, Bermuda 1, Czech Republic 1, Dominica 1, Netherlands 1, Romania 1, Slovenia 1, Venezuela 1[40] China refuses diplomatic relations with Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Sri Lanka Merchant Shipping Division (Sri Lanka) 21[41] 8[41] 38% Germany 8[41]
Tonga Tonga 7[42] 2[42] 29% Australia 1, UK 1[42] International registry suspended in 2002.[43]
Vanuatu Vanuatu Maritime Services Limited 77[44] 72[44] 94% Japan 39, Poland 9, Russia 7, Canada 5, Greece 3, Singapore 2, US 2, Belgium 1, China 1, Norway 1, Taiwan 1, UAE 1[44]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ ITFglobal.org
  2. ^ a b c International Transport Workers' Federation. "What are Flags of Convenience?". Retrieved 2007-05-04. 
  3. ^ Antiguamarine.com
  4. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Antigua and Barbuda, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  5. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Bahamas, The, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  6. ^ Flag-state self assessment
  7. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Barbados, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  8. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Belize, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  9. ^ Gov.bm
  10. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Bermuda, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  11. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Bolivia, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  12. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Cambodia, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  13. ^ Cishipping.com
  14. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Cayman Islands, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  15. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Comoros, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  16. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Netherlands Antilles, Transportation. Access date 2011-01-11.
  17. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Cyprus, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  18. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Equatorial Guinea, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  19. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Faroe Islands, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  20. ^ Rif.mer.equipement.gouv.fr
  21. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, France, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  22. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Georgia, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  23. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Germany, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  24. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Gibraltar, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  25. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Honduras, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  26. ^ Jamaicaships.com
  27. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Jamaica, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  28. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Lebanon, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  29. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Liberia, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  30. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Malta, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  31. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Marshall Islands, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  32. ^ a b CIA World Factbook, Mauritius, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  33. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Moldova, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  34. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Mongolia, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  35. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Myanmar, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  36. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, North Korea, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  37. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Panama, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  38. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, São Tomé and Príncipe, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  39. ^ SVG-marad.com
  40. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  41. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Sri Lanka, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  42. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Tonga, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.
  43. ^ "Tonga suspends registry". Retrieved 2007-05-05. 
  44. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook, Vanuatu, Transportation. Access date 2012-05-03.