List of highest mountains of New Guinea

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Mount Carstensz from the east in 1972. Left to right: North Wall Peaks, Ngga Pulu, Carstensz East, and Puncak Jaya or Carstensz Pyramid. Due to glacier melt, the rocky ridge of Jaya has surpassed Ngga Pulu as the highest summit of Oceania.

This list of highest mountains of New Guinea shows all mountains on the island of New Guinea that are at least 3750 m high and have a topographic prominence of 500 m or more. These c. 50 peaks are also the highest mountains of Australasia, where, outside New Guinea, the highest mountain is Aoraki / Mount Cook in New Zealand with a height of 3724 m.[1] A list of highest mountains of Oceania with the same limitations is almost identical, with the addition of the Hawaiian volcanoes of Mauna Kea (4205 m) and Mauna Loa (4169 m) in 18th and 20th positions. The list also shows the 36 highest thus defined mountains of Indonesia, except for the 3805 m high Gunung Kerinci on Sumatra (#29 in Indonesia), and the 16 highest mountains of Papua New Guinea.

Limited topographical data[edit]

Many mountains in New Guinea are poorly surveyed and some major summits remain unnamed on maps. Even well measured mountains have conflicting heights on otherwise authoritative maps. For example, the highest point in Oceania, Carstensz Pyramid, was established to be 4884 m in 1973 when an Australian survey expedition put a beacon on the summit. This corresponded closely to the 4866 m estimate by the first Lorentsz Expedition in 1910 using repeated theodolite observations from the south coast. However, over time the mountain had grown in stature: measurements from northern observation peaks for the highest summit (each time Ngga Pulu) were 5000 m in 1910 by Ludolph Doorman and 5030 m in 1926 by Charles C.F.M. Le Roux.[2] The 1936 Carstensz Expedition using barometric and boiling point measurements on the summit of Ngga Pulu also derived an elevation of 5030 m.[3] After ascending the Pyramid in 1962, Heinrich Harrer even estimated that peak to be 17,096 feet or 5211 m high.[4] The 1973 survey established that the 1936 barometric estimates were consistently between 118 and 127 m too high. Nevertheless, the 5030 m height is still prevalent in most atlases and maps.[5]

Disappearing and disappeared glaciers of the Snowy Mountains[edit]

All mountains in West Papua are in the Maoke Mountains, a translation of the name “Sneeuwgebergte” or Snowy Mountains endowed to them in 1623 by Jan Carstensz, at which time many of the peaks indeed were covered by extensive ice caps. By the beginning of the 20th century, at least five such glaciated regions remained on the highest mountains. In 1913, the 4520–4550 m high Prins Hendrik-top (now Puncak Yamin) was named and reported to have some "eternal" snow.[6] The ice cap of Wilhelmina Peaks vanished between 1939 and 1963, while the Mandala / Juliana ice cap disappeared in the 1990s.[7] The Idenburg glacier on Ngga Pilimsit dried up in 2003, leaving currently only the remnants of the glaciers on Mount Carstensz, which are expected to disappear before 2050 [8] and perhaps as soon as 2015.[9] The snow melt on the last mountain has caused a change of the highest summit of New Guinea: somewhere between 1936 and 1973 the title of highest summit of Oceania changed from Ngga Pulu, the highest point of the Northwall Firn (now split into West and East Northwall Firn), to the rocky spires of Carstensz Pyramid 3 km to its south-west.[10]

The list[edit]

The list contains some unranked summits that are either of general interest, may show topographic prominences of >500 m given better data, or are more than 12 km isolated from any higher point.

Rank [11] Mountain [12] Height (m) [13] Range Country (rank) Coordinates[14] Prominence (m)[15] Isolation (km) [16] First ascent [17]
1 Puncak Jaya / Carstensz Pyramid 4884 Western Sudirman/Nassau Indonesia (1) 04°04′43″S 137°09′30″E / 4.07861°S 137.15833°E / -4.07861; 137.15833 4884 5261 13 Feb 1962
Sumantri / Ngga Pulu NW [18] 4870 Western Sudirman/Nassau Indonesia 04°03′43″S 137°11′06″E / 4.06194°S 137.18500°E / -4.06194; 137.18500 350 3.5 Feb 1962
Ngga Pulu [19] 4862 Western Sudirman/Nassau Indonesia 04°03′59″S 137°11′16″E / 4.06639°S 137.18778°E / -4.06639; 137.18778 100 0.6 5 Dec 1936
Carstensz East 4820 Western Sudirman/Nassau Indonesia 04°05′00″S 137°11′06″E / 4.08333°S 137.18500°E / -4.08333; 137.18500 280 1.9 5 Dec 1936
2 Mandala / Juliana Pk / Abom [20] 4760 Jayawijaya / Orange [21] Indonesia (2) 04°42′31″S 140°17′22″E / 4.70861°S 140.28944°E / -4.70861; 140.28944 2760 351.4 9 Sep 1959
3 Trikora / Wilhelmina Pk [22] 4730 Eastern Sudirman / Nassau [21] Indonesia (3) 04°15′44″S 138°40′54″E / 4.26222°S 138.68167°E / -4.26222; 138.68167 1262 167.0 21 Feb 1913
Ngga Pilimsit / Idenburg Pk [23] 4717 Western Sudirman/Nassau Indonesia 04°02′08″S 137°03′33″E / 4.03556°S 137.05917°E / -4.03556; 137.05917 460 11.1 21 Feb 1962
4 Yamin / Prins Hendrik Pk 4540 Jayawijaya / Orange Indonesia (4) 04°40′59″S 140°04′52″E / 4.68306°S 140.08111°E / -4.68306; 140.08111 700 20.0
5 Cornelis Speelman Mts 4540 Jayawijaya / Orange Indonesia (5) 04°34′28″S 140°08′14″E / 4.57444°S 140.13722°E / -4.57444; 140.13722 700 18.2
6 Mt Wilhelm / Enduwa Kombuglu 4509 Bismarck Range Papua New Guinea (1) 05°46′48″S 145°01′46″E / 5.78000°S 145.02944°E / -5.78000; 145.02944 2969 537.7 15 Aug 1938
7 J P Coen Pk [24] 4500 Jayawijaya / Orange Indonesia (6) 04°18′16″S 139°37′53″E / 4.30444°S 139.63139°E / -4.30444; 139.63139 820 63.5
8 Pt 4460 [25] 4460 Western Sudirman/Nassau Indonesia (7) 04°05′04″S 137°20′59″E / 4.08444°S 137.34972°E / -4.08444; 137.34972 600 17.2
9 Valentijn Pks [24] 4453 Jayawijaya / Orange Indonesia (8) 04°25′12″S 139°44′08″E / 4.42000°S 139.73556°E / -4.42000; 139.73556 640 17.1
Dom / Platen Spitz (fr) 4420 Western Sudirman/Nassau Indonesia 04°05′29″S 137°08′02″E / 4.09139°S 137.13389°E / -4.09139; 137.13389 460 2.1
Akimuga / Prince Willem I Pk 4390 Western Sudirman/Nassau Indonesia 04°06′47″S 137°27′56″E / 4.11306°S 137.46556°E / -4.11306; 137.46556 340 12.3
10 Zaagtoppen (Saw Mtns) 4380 Jayawijaya / Orange Indonesia (9) 04°33′01″S 139°55′06″E / 4.55028°S 139.91833°E / -4.55028; 139.91833 680 19.1
11 Mt Giluwe 4367 New Guinea Highlands Papua New Guinea (2) 06°02′36″S 143°53′11″E / 6.04333°S 143.88639°E / -6.04333; 143.88639 2507 129.5 16 Jun 1934
12 Willem II Pk 4360 Eastern Sudirman/Nassau Indonesia (10) 04°09′43″S 138°20′24″E / 4.16194°S 138.34000°E / -4.16194; 138.34000 620 36.9
13 Ubia / Mt Leonard Darwin [26] 4340 Western Sudirman/Nassau Indonesia (11) 04°00′22″S 136°48′09″E / 4.00611°S 136.80250°E / -4.00611; 136.80250 580 20.3
Doema ? 4340 Western Sudirman/Nassau Indonesia 03°57′53″S 136°52′42″E / 3.96472°S 136.87833°E / -3.96472; 136.87833 340 12.2
14 Willem I Pk 4320 Eastern Sudirman/Nassau Indonesia (12) 04°08′26″S 138°15′44″E / 4.14056°S 138.26222°E / -4.14056; 138.26222 660 8.9
15 Rumphius Pk 4320 Eastern Sudirman/Nassau Indonesia (13) 04°17′44″S 138°48′34″E / 4.29556°S 138.80944°E / -4.29556; 138.80944 540 13.0
16 Pt 4260 4300 Jayawijaya / Orange Indonesia (14) 04°38′10″S 140°17′27″E / 4.63611°S 140.29083°E / -4.63611; 140.29083 540 5.4
Pt 4240 4240 Eastern Sudirman/Nassau Indonesia 04°09′29″S 138°26′50″E / 4.15806°S 138.44722°E / -4.15806; 138.44722 400 11.6
17 Prince Willem II Pk 4220 Eastern Sudirman/Nassau Indonesia (15) 04°09′01″S 137°56′57″E / 4.15028°S 137.94917°E / -4.15028; 137.94917 540 30.7
18 Pt 4180 4180 Western Sudirman/Nassau Indonesia (16) 04°00′36″S 136°51′30″E / 4.01000°S 136.85833°E / -4.01000; 136.85833 600 5.1
19 Mt Gladstone [27] 4125 Finisterre Range Papua New Guinea (3) 05°57′14″S 146°22′31″E / 5.95389°S 146.37528°E / -5.95389; 146.37528 3734 148.4
20 Mt Sarawaget / Bangeta[28] 4121 Saruwaged Range Papua New Guinea (4) 06°18′38″S 147°05′25″E / 6.31056°S 147.09028°E / -6.31056; 147.09028 1701 88.4 1912
21 Mt Kabangama 4104 Kubor Range Papua New Guinea (5) 06°03′38″S 144°36′56″E / 6.06056°S 144.61556°E / -6.06056; 144.61556 2284 52.4
22 Pt 4100 [29] 4100 Maoke Range Indonesia (17) 03°57′26″S 137°44′57″E / 3.95722°S 137.74917°E / -3.95722; 137.74917 510 25.8
23 Ngga Nggulumbulu 4061 Nggulumbulu / Hens Range Indonesia (18) 03°45′30″S 137°18′40″E / 3.75833°S 137.31111°E / -3.75833; 137.31111 1300 32.5
Mt Kotewon ? 4060 Saruwaged Range Papua New Guinea 06°14′09″S 146°57′37″E / 6.23583°S 146.96028°E / -6.23583; 146.96028 460 16.2
Pt 4040 4040 Saruwaged Range Papua New Guinea 06°14′13″S 146°54′26″E / 6.23694°S 146.90722°E / -6.23694; 146.90722 460 5.9
Prins Maurits Mtns 4040 Western Sudirman/Nassau Indonesia 04°06′08″S 137°39′10″E / 4.10222°S 137.65278°E / -4.10222; 137.65278 380 16.4
24 Mt Victoria 4038 Owen Stanley Range Papua New Guinea (6) 08°53′34″S 147°31′59″E / 8.89278°S 147.53306°E / -8.89278; 147.53306 2738 287.8 11 Jun 1889
Frederik Hendrik Pk 4020 Western Sudirman/Nassau Indonesia 04°05′29″S 137°46′02″E / 4.09139°S 137.76722°E / -4.09139; 137.76722 280 12.8
25 Johan Willem Friso Pk 4000 Eastern Sudirman/Nassau Indonesia (19) 04°10′12″S 138°01′33″E / 4.17000°S 138.02583°E / -4.17000; 138.02583 560 2.9
26 Mt Albert Edward 3993 Owen Stanley Range Papua New Guinea (7) 08°24′44″S 147°24′12″E / 8.41222°S 147.40333°E / -8.41222; 147.40333 980 54.8 1906
27 Antares[30] 3970 Star Mountains Indonesia (20) 04°53′46″S 140°54′15″E / 4.89611°S 140.90417°E / -4.89611; 140.90417 1360 63.7 6 Jul 1959
28 Mt Kubor [31] 3969 Kubor Range Papua New Guinea (8) 06°06′06″S 144°45′36″E / 6.10167°S 144.76000°E / -6.10167; 144.76000 580 16.3
29 Mt Elit 3960 Jayawijaya / Orange Indonesia (21) 03°59′34″S 139°11′09″E / 3.99278°S 139.18583°E / -3.99278; 139.18583 720 36.8
30 Capella 3960 Star Mountains Papua New Guinea (9) 04°59′45″S 141°04′57″E / 4.99583°S 141.08250°E / -4.99583; 141.08250 670 22.6 Apr or May 1965
31 Pt 3960 3960 Jayawijaya / Orange Indonesia (22) 04°19′34″S 139°26′26″E / 4.32611°S 139.44056°E / -4.32611; 139.44056 660 12.3
32 Angemuk 3949 Maoke Mountains Indonesia (23) 03°31′30″S 138°35′31″E / 3.52500°S 138.59194°E / -3.52500; 138.59194 1565 70.6
33 Pt 3940 3940 Maoke Mountains Indonesia (24) 03°51′12″S 137°57′52″E / 3.85333°S 137.96444°E / -3.85333; 137.96444 800 24.4
34 Mt Yupnakabap ? 3920 Finisterre Range Papua New Guinea (10) 06°00′15″S 146°29′56″E / 6.00417°S 146.49889°E / -6.00417; 146.49889 820 9.3 Jan or Feb 1965
35 Tiom Mtns HP 3915 Tiom Mountains [32] Indonesia (25) 03°46′01″S 138°16′01″E / 3.76694°S 138.26694°E / -3.76694; 138.26694 720 34.9
36 Pt 3900 [25] 3900 Jayawijaya / Orange Indonesia (26) 04°16′35″S 139°18′58″E / 4.27639°S 139.31611°E / -4.27639; 139.31611 640 14.2
37 Mt Kegeraga 3885 Kubor Range Papua New Guinea (11) 06°01′48″S 144°23′23″E / 6.03000°S 144.38972°E / -6.03000; 144.38972 720 24.6
38 Pt 3860_Finisterre 3860 Finisterre Range Papua New Guinea (12) 05°47′38″S 146°06′33″E / 5.79389°S 146.10917°E / -5.79389; 146.10917 660 30.9
Pt 3860_Orange 3860 Jayawijaya / Orange Indonesia 04°09′31″S 139°13′03″E / 4.15861°S 139.21750°E / -4.15861; 139.21750 300 14.5
39 Papua Peak 3856 3856 Maoke Mountains Indonesia (27) 03°35′10″S 138°15′35″E / 3.58611°S 138.25972°E / -3.58611; 138.25972 1165 19.9
40 Mt Kumbepara [33] 3852 New Guinea Highlands Papua New Guinea (13) 05°30′26″S 143°02′52″E / 5.50722°S 143.04778°E / -5.50722; 143.04778 1100 106.1
Pt 12467 3840 Jayawijaya / Orange Indonesia 04°42′34″S 140°28′08″E / 4.70944°S 140.46889°E / -4.70944; 140.46889 480 11.2
41 Mt Hagen [34] 3834 New Guinea Highlands Papua New Guinea (14) 05°44′38″S 144°02′34″E / 5.74389°S 144.04278°E / -5.74389; 144.04278 1080 29.3 July 1933
42 Pt 3820 3820 Maoke Mountains Indonesia (28) 03°55′02″S 138°02′16″E / 3.91722°S 138.03778°E / -3.91722; 138.03778 560 8.2
Mt Scratchley 3820 Owen Stanley Range Papua New Guinea 08°44′14″S 147°28′35″E / 8.73722°S 147.47639°E / -8.73722; 147.47639 480 16.4 1896
Pt 3820 3820 Maoke Mountains Indonesia 03°50′00″S 138°24′45″E / 3.83333°S 138.41250°E / -3.83333; 138.41250 440 14.7
43 X-chain HP 3801 Maoke Mountains (X-chain) Indonesia (30) 03°32′32″S 137°49′42″E / 3.54222°S 137.82833°E / -3.54222; 137.82833 1120 35.5
44 Pt 3800 3800 Maoke Mountains Indonesia (31) 03°34′39″S 138°02′46″E / 3.57750°S 138.04611°E / -3.57750; 138.04611 600 23.4
45 Mt Kaijende [5][33][35] 3798 New Guinea Highlands Papua New Guinea (15) 05°28′25″S 143°11′50″E / 5.47361°S 143.19722°E / -5.47361; 143.19722 620 15.1
46 Jumbul Ambera 3785 Maoke Mountains Indonesia (32) 03°52′03″S 139°00′13″E / 3.86750°S 139.00361°E / -3.86750; 139.00361 1383 18.5
47 Z-chain high-point 3774 Maoke Mountains (Z-chain) Indonesia (33) 03°37′59″S 136°55′24″E / 3.63306°S 136.92333°E / -3.63306; 136.92333 1354 35.2
48 Mt Undan / Udon / Bedego [36] 3774 Bismarck Range Papua New Guinea (16) 05°48′02″S 144°51′12″E / 5.80056°S 144.85333°E / -5.80056; 144.85333 800 13.2
49 Pt 3760 3760 Jayawijaya / Orange Indonesia (34) 04°41′33″S 140°30′32″E / 4.69250°S 140.50889°E / -4.69250; 140.50889 560 4.5
50 Kobowre HP/ Wakai [37] 3750 Kobowre / Weyland Mts Indonesia (35) 03°52′15″S 135°52′14″E / 3.87083°S 135.87056°E / -3.87083; 135.87056 2217 88.4
51 Wachter (Guardian) [38] 3750 Jayawijaya / Orange Indonesia (36) 04°27′30″S 139°27′48″E / 4.45833°S 139.46333°E / -4.45833; 139.46333 880 11.1

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Aoraki was 3764 m high until 14 December 1991, when a massive rock/ice collapse broke off 10 meters. Subsequent erosion of the exposed ice cap reduced its height by a further 30 m as of November 2013.[1]
  2. ^ Charles C.F.M. Le Roux, The Mountain Papuas of New Guinea and their environment, Volume 1, Leiden 1948, pp. 40 & 45.
  3. ^ Colijn's map of the 1936 expedition.
  4. ^ Heinrich Harrer's sketch map from Ich komme aus der Steinzeit. Pinguin, Innsbruck 1976, ISBN 3-524-00331-1.
  5. ^ Edward G. Anderson, Topographic survey and cartography, in Hope, Geoff S, et al (Editors) 1976, The Equatorial Glaciers of New Guinea (Results of the 1971-1973 Australian Universities' Expeditions to Irian Jaya: survey, glaciology, meteorology, biology and palaeoenvironments), Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema. 1976, pp. 19-23.
  6. ^ E.J. Brill, Tijdschrift van het Koninklijk Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, 1913, p. 180.
  7. ^ Klein, A.G., Kincaid, J.L., 2008. On the disappearance of the Puncak Mandala ice cap, Papua. Journal of Glaciology 54, 195–198.
  8. ^ Klein, A.G. and J.L. Kincaid. 2006. Retreat of glaciers on Puncak Jaya, Irian Jaya, determined from 2000 and 2002 IKONOS satellite images. J. Glaciol., 52(176), 65–79.
  9. ^ McDowell, Robin (July 1, 2010). "Indonesia’s Last Glacier Will Melt ‘Within Years’". Jakarta Globe. Retrieved 2011-10-23. 
  10. ^ Anderson, p. 22, and Jean Jacques Dozy, Vom höchsten Gipfel bis in die tiefste Grube., Bull. angew. Geol. 7:S.67-80. 2002.
  11. ^ Only mountains with a prominence of 500 m or more are ranked.
  12. ^ Many names are from the 1942 and 1966 American army maps and can be outdated [2] [3].
  13. ^ Most "round" heights are crude estimates from contour lines on Google terrain maps. Based on the average of carefully measured summit heights in the region, peaks are here presented to be 40 m higher than the highest encircling contour line.
  14. ^ Extracted from the Google terrain maps.
  15. ^ The prominence data were extracted from a combination of maps and Google terrain data. Values for mountains with prominences over 1,500 m were copied from the peaklist.org ultras website.
  16. ^ The nearest higher elevation to Puncak Jaya is on the slopes of Yulong Xueshan in China.
  17. ^ First documented ascent by Europeans.
  18. ^ Measured in 1975 at 4855 m (Anderson, p. 21), but its exposed spire is now also higher than the neighboring, melting Ngga Pulu
  19. ^ In 1936, the snow dome of Ngga Pulu seems to have been ca. 4900 m high and with that the highest summit in the Netherlands Indies and Oceania (Anderson p. 22). For this reason it became in 1963 the original bearer of the name Puntjak Sukarno and then Puntjak Djaja. However, snowmelt had lowered it to 4862 m by 1973 (Anderson, p. 22).
  20. ^ An alternative height of 4640 m is inconsistent with 4720 m SRTM-contour lines around the summit.
  21. ^ a b On some maps and in some sources the Jayawijaya / Orange range represents the eastern half of the Nassau range (from the 3475 m Jila Pass at 4°5′36″S 137°40′16″E / 4.09333°S 137.67111°E / -4.09333; 137.67111 to the Baliem gorge). The original Orange range is then often considered part of the Star mountains, the eastern section of the Jayawijaya range, or has the name Wisnumurti Range.
  22. ^ Highest SRTM-contour lines are 4680 m.
  23. ^ Probable location; alternatively the highest of the three Idenburg Peaks, climbed by Harrer and company in 1962, is 1.8 km to the ESE at 04°2′42″S 137°4′21″E / 4.04500°S 137.07250°E / -4.04500; 137.07250.
  24. ^ a b The names of the Valentijn and Jan Pietersz Coen mountains are switched on different maps, sometimes JPC, sometimes Valentijn being northwest and having the highest summit of ca. 4500 m.
  25. ^ a b One of multiple summits on a ridge with the same highest contour lines.
  26. ^ A mountain originally named after the son of Charles Darwin. The height of Mt Ubia is usually given as 4234 m. This probably was the 1910 theodolite measurement from the south coast of the top of the spectacular, 1500m-high south wall. The true summit 2 km NE would have been out of view.
  27. ^ This summit is unnamed on most maps, but is called Mount Gladstone on the 1942 American Army Map, on which it is estimated to be only 11,400 feet (c. 3475 m) high.
  28. ^ Also Mt Salawaket or Mt Saruwaged and Sturmkoppe. Mt Bangeta may alternatively refer to a 4060 m subsidiary peak at 6°16′42″S 147°03′12″E / 6.27833°S 147.05333°E / -6.27833; 147.05333.
  29. ^ Sometimes reported with an SRTM-data incompatible 4350 m height.
  30. ^ The height of Antares, always considered the highest mountain of the Sterrengebergte (Star mountains), has been all over the map. The first ascendants underestimated it by some 300 m to be 3650 m [4] while the height of 4170 m on many maps appears 200 m too high. The highest (very narrow) SRTM-contours around the summit are 3940 m.
  31. ^ The commonly reported height of 4,360 m appears 400 m off target.
  32. ^ Name (after the Tiom pass to the south) and height from J. Ehlers, P.L. Gibbard, P.D. Hughes, Quaternary Glaciations - Extent and Chronology: A Closer Look, Elsevier Publishers, Amsterdam 2011, pp. 1026-1031.
  33. ^ a b Map in RAP Expedition Kaijende Highlands 2005 report.
  34. ^ Many sources give a height of 3778 m for Mt Hagen, but SRTM data show multiple regions on the crater rim with contour lines of 3780 m.
  35. ^ Other sources (e.g. Paul W Williams, Arête and Pinnacle Karst of Mount Kaijende, 2009) seem to indicate that the name "Mount Kaijende" belongs to the ca. 3500 m high mountain 10 km to the east at 05°29′40″S 143°17′28″E / 5.49444°S 143.29111°E / -5.49444; 143.29111.
  36. ^ The 3774 m height is reported for Mount Bedego, which could match the 3700 m contour lines at this location, which more often bears the name Mount Undan or Mount Udon.
  37. ^ The highest point of the Weyland mountains for many years was held to be 3891 m, but this is not born out by maximum SRTM-contours of 3720 m.
  38. ^ A pointy peak which may well be over 3750 m high despite SRTM-contours of only 3700 m.