List of intelligence gathering disciplines
Intelligence Gathering Disciplines
Human Intelligence—gathered from a person on the ground.
- Friendly accredited diplomats
- Military attaches
- Non-governmental organizations (NGOs)
- Patrolling (Military police, patrols, etc.)
- Prisoners of war (POWs) or detainees
- Strategic reconnaissance, as by special forces
- Traveler debriefing (e.g., CIA Domestic Contact Service)
Geospatial Intelligence—gathered from satellite, aerial photography, mapping/terrain data
- IMINT—Imagery Intelligence: gathered from satellite and aerial photography
Measurement and Signature Intelligence
- Electro-optical MASINT
- Nuclear MASINT
- Geophysical MASINT
- Radar MASINT
- Materials MASINT
- Radiofrequency MASINT
Open Source Intelligence—gathered from open sources.
Can be further segmented by source type; Internet/General, Scientific/Technical and various HUMINT specialties (e.g. trade shows, association meetings, interviews, etc.)
Signals Intelligence—gathered from interception of signals
- COMINT—Communications Intelligence
- ELINT—Electronic Intelligence: gathered from electronic signals that do not contain speech or text (which are considered COMINT).
- FISINT—Foreign Instrumentation Signals Intelligence, was formerly known as TELINT or Telemetry Intelligence. TELINT, entails the collection and analysis of telemetry data from the target's missile or sometimes from aircraft tests.
Technical Intelligence—gathered from analysis of weapons and equipment used by the armed forces of foreign nations, or environmental conditions.
- MEDINT—Medical Intelligence: gathered from analysis of medical records and/or actual physiological examinations to determine health and/or particular ailments/allergetic conditions for exploitation.
Cyber Intelligence/Digital Network Intelligence—gathered from Cyber Space
Financial Intelligence—gathered from analysis of monetary transactions