Location awareness

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Location awareness refers to devices that can passively or actively determine their location. Navigational instruments provide location coordinates for vessels and vehicles. Surveying equipment identifies location with respect to a well-known locationa wireless communications device. Network location awareness (NLA) describes the location of a node in a network.[1][2]

The term applies to navigating, real-time locating and positioning support with global, regional or local scope. The term has been applied to traffic, logistics, business administration and leisure applications. Location awareness is supported by navigation systems, positioning systems and/or locating services.

Location awareness without the active participation of the device is known as non-cooperative locating or detection.

History of terminology[edit]

The term originated for configurations settings of network systems and addressed network entities. Network location awareness (NLA) services collect network configuration and location information, and notify applications when this information changes. With the advent of global positioning systems and radio-equipped mobile devices, the term was redefined to include consumer-focused applications.

While location awareness began as a matter of static user location, the notion was extended to reflect movement. Context models have been proposed[3] to support context-aware applications which use location to tailor interfaces, refine application-relevant data, increase the precision of information retrieval, discover services, make user interaction implicit and build smart environments. For example, a location-aware mobile phone may confirm that it is currently in a building.[4]

Determining location[edit]

Description in logical terms uses a structured textual form. International standardisation offers a common method using ISO/TS 16952[5] as originated with German standards DIN EN 61346[6] and DIN EN 81346.[7]

Location in mathematical terms offers coordinates that refer to a nominated point of reference.

Location in network terms relates to locating network nodes. These include:

Variants[edit]

"Crisp" locating offers precise coordinates, using wireless signals or optical sighting, possibly with phase angle measurements. Coordinates are relative to either a standardized system of coordinates, e.g. WGS84, or a fixed object such as a building plan. Real-time locating adds timely delivery of results, especially for moving targets. Real time locating is defined with ISO/IEC 19762-5 and ISO/IEC 24730-1.[16] Fuzzy locating offers less precision, e.g., presence "near" a point of reference. Measuring wireless power levels can supply this degree of precision. Less sophisticated systems can use wireless distance measurements to estimate a point of reference in polar coordinates (distance and direction) from another site. Index locating indicates presence at a known location, as with fixed RFID readers and RFID tags.[17]

Applications[edit]

Location-aware systems address the acquisition of coordinates in a grid (for example using distance metrics and lateration algorithms) or at least distances to reference points (for example discriminating presence at a certain choke point on a corridor or in a room of a building).[18]

Navigation[edit]

Navigation and reckoning are key concerns for seafarers, aviators and professional drivers. The task is to dynamically determine the current location and the time, distance and direction to destination. radar served for regional demand and NAVSTAR satellite systems for global demand. GPS and similar systems have become ubituitous in long-haul transport operation and are becoming a standard automobile feature.[19]

Surveying[edit]

Surveying is the static complement to navigating. It is essential for delineating land ownership and for architects and civil engineers designing construction projects. Optical surveying technology preceded LASER triangulating aids.[20]

Business process[edit]

Currently location awareness is applied to design innovative process controls, and is integral to ubiquitous and wearable computing. On mobile devices, location aware search can prioritize results that are close to the device. Conversely, the device location can be disclosed to others, at some cost to the bearer's privacy.[21]

Warehouse and routing[edit]

RFID provides a time/location reference for an object, but does not indicate that the object remains at that location, which is sufficient for applications that limit access, such as tracking objects entering and leaving a warehouse, or for objects moving on a fixed route, such as charging tolls for crossing a bridge.[22][23]

Consumer[edit]

Location awareness enables new applications for ubiquitous computing systems and mobile phones. Such applications include the automatic reconfiguration of a computing device to suit the location in which it is currently being used (examples include ControlPlane and Locamatic), or publishing a user's location to appropriate members of a social network, and allowing retailers to publish special offers to potential customers who are near to the retailer. Allegedly, individuals gain self confidence with confirmation of current whereabouts.[24]

Infrastructure[edit]

While governments have created global systems for computing locations, independent localized systems exist at scales ranging from one building to sub-national regions.

Local[edit]

Such solutions may apply concepts of RTLS and WPAN, wireless LAN or DECT, with results in proprietary terms of floor plans or room numbers. Local systems degrade as distance from the locality increases. Applications include the automatic reconfiguration of a computing device to suit the location in which it is currently being used.

Regional[edit]

This approach uses for example mobile phone systems, such as 3GPP, GSM or LTE, typically returning information in standardized coordinates as with WGS84 in standardized formats such as NMEA for outdoor usage or in symbolic coordinates referring to street addresses.

Global[edit]

This approach relies on GPS technology, currently supplied by NAVSTAR and may in future employ the pending Galileo (satellite navigation) system, generally adopting WGS84 and NMEA. Applications include avalanche rescue or emergency and mountain rescue as well as with search and rescue, (SAR) and combat search and rescue, (CSAR).

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Network location awareness[dead link]
  2. ^ http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms740123%28VS.85%29.aspx
  3. ^ Cristiana Bolchini and Carlo A. Curino and Elisa Quintarelli and Fabio A. Schreiber and Letizia Tanca (2007). "A data-oriented survey of context models" (PDF). SIGMOD Rec. (New York, NY, USA: ACM) 36 (4): 19–26. doi:10.1145/1361348.1361353. ISSN 0163-5808. [dead link]
  4. ^ Schmidt, A.; Aidoo, K.A.; Takaluoma, A.; Tuomela, U.; Van Laerhoven, K; Van de Velde W. (1999). "Advanced Interaction in Context" (PDF). 1st International Symposium on Handheld and Ubiquitous Computing (HUC99), Springer LNCS, Vol. 1707. pp. 89–101. 
  5. ^ "ISO/TS 16952-1:2006 Technical product documentation - Reference designation system - Part 1: General application rules". Iso.org. 2012-07-11. Retrieved 2013-07-23. 
  6. ^ DIN EN 61346 Industrielle Systeme, Anlagen und Ausrüstungen und Industrieprodukte – Strukturierungsprinzipien und Referenzkennzeichnung
  7. ^ "Industrielle Systeme, Anlagen und Ausrüstungen und Industrieprodukte - Strukturierungsprinzipien und Referenzkennzeichnung - Teil 1: Allgemeine Regeln (IEC 81346-1:2009)". Dke.din.de. 2007-05-29. Retrieved 2013-07-23. 
  8. ^ tsbmail. "International Telecommunications Union Q-Series Standards, Signalling and Switching". Itu.int. Retrieved 2013-07-23. 
  9. ^ "ANSI Standard T1.110". Tekelec.com. Retrieved 2013-07-23. 
  10. ^ "International Standard ISO/IEC 10038: 1993". Iso.org. 1998-12-18. Retrieved 2013-07-23. 
  11. ^ [ISO/IEC TR 11802-2:2005 Information technology—Telecommunications and information exchange between systems—Local and metropolitan area networks—Technical reports and guidelines—Part 2: Standard Group MAC Addresses]
  12. ^ ANSI/IEEE Std 802.1D, 1993 edition[dead link]
  13. ^ "ISO/IEC 11578 Information technology—Open Systems Interconnection—Remote Procedure Call (RPC)". Iso.org. 2001-08-13. Retrieved 2013-07-23. 
  14. ^ "Information technology—Open Systems Interconnection—Procedures for the operation of OSI Registration Authorities: Generation and registration of Universally Unique Identifiers (UUIDs) and their use as ASN.1 Object Identifier components". Iso.org. 2012-09-17. Retrieved 2013-07-23. 
  15. ^ "A Universally Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace". Retrieved 2013-07-23. 
  16. ^ Malik, Ajay (2009). "RTLS für Dummies". 
  17. ^ Sweeney, Patrick (2006). "RFID für Dummies". 
  18. ^ Schmidt, Albrecht (2003). "Ubiquitous Computing - Computing in Context". PhD dissertation, Lancaster University. 
  19. ^ Test TomTom Navigator 6[dead link]
  20. ^ Das neue Messen[dead link]
  21. ^ Albrecht Schmidt, Michael Beigl and Hans-W. Gellersen (December 1999). "There is more to Context than Location" (PDF). Computers & Graphics (Elsevier) 23 (6): 893–902. doi:10.1016/s0097-8493(99)00120-x. 
  22. ^ "Fünf Jahre nach dem RFID-Hype erste Ernüchterung". Rfid-basis.de. Retrieved 2013-07-23. 
  23. ^ Rosemann, M., & Recker, J. (2006). "Context-aware process design: Exploring the extrinsic drivers for process flexibility". In T. Latour & M. Petit. 18th international conference on advanced information systems engineering. proceedings of workshops and doctoral consortium. Luxembourg: Namur University Press. pp. 149–158. 
  24. ^ Blank, T. O. (1989). "Social psychology, contexts of aging, and a contextual world view". The International Journal of Aging & Human Development 29 (3): 225–239. doi:10.2190/WUQU-VT01-021N-GX33. PMID 2634031. 

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