Mac OS 9
|Release of Mac OS operating system|
Screenshot of Mac OS 9.2.2
|Company / developer||Apple Computer Inc.|
|Source model||Closed source|
|October 23, 1999|
|Latest release||9.2.2 / December 5, 2001|
|Preceded by||Mac OS 8|
|Succeeded by||OS X|
|Unsupported as of 2002|
Mac OS 9 is the final major release of Apple's Classic Mac OS operating system. Introduced on October 23, 1999, Apple positioned it as "The Best Internet Operating System Ever", highlighting Sherlock 2's Internet search capabilities, integration with Apple's free online services known as iTools and improved Open Transport networking. While Mac OS 9 lacks protected memory and full pre-emptive multitasking, lasting improvements include the introduction of an automated Software Update engine and support for multiple users.
Apple discontinued development of Mac OS 9 in 2001, transitioning all future development to OS X. Since that time, no updates have been released. The final updates to Mac OS 9 addressed compatibility issues with OS X while running in the Classic Environment and compatibility with Carbon applications. At the 2002 World Wide Developers Conference, Steve Jobs began his keynote address by staging a mock funeral for OS 9.
Apple billed Mac OS 9 as including "50 New Features" and heavily marketed its Sherlock 2 software, which introduced a 'channels' feature for searching different online resources and introduced a QuickTime-like metallic appearance. Mac OS 9 also featured integrated support for Apple’s suite of Internet services known as iTools (later re-branded as .Mac, then MobileMe, which was replaced by iCloud) and included improved TCP/IP functionality with Open Transport 2.5.
Other features new to Mac OS 9 include:
- Integrated support for multiple user accounts without using At Ease.
- Support for voice login through VoicePrint passwords.
- Keychain, a feature allowing users to save passwords and textual data encrypted in protected keychains.
- A Software Update control panel for automatic download and installation of Apple system software updates.
- A redesigned Sound control panel and support for USB audio.
- Speakable Items 2.0, also known as PlainTalk, featuring improved speech synthesis and recognition along with AppleScript integration.
- Improved font management through FontSync.
- Remote Access Personal Server 3.5, including support for TCP/IP clients over Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP).
- An updated version of AppleScript with support for TCP/IP.
- Personal File Sharing over TCP/IP.
- USB Printer Sharing, a control panel allowing certain USB printers to be shared across a TCP/IP network.
- 128-bit file encryption in the Finder.
- Support for files larger than 2 GB.
- Unix volume support.
- CD Burning in the Finder (introduced in Mac OS 9.1).
- Addition of a 'Window' menu to the Finder (introduced in Mac OS 9.1)
Mac OS 9 and the Classic environment
PowerPC versions of OS X prior to 10.5 include a compatibility layer (a shell) called Classic, enabling users to run applications and hardware requiring Mac OS 9 from within OS X. This is achieved through running Mac OS 9 without access to Finder inside OS X. This requires Mac OS 9 to be installed on the computer, even if computers that can run the Classic environment are not necessarily able to boot into Mac OS 9. Some Mac OS 9 applications do not run well in Classic, they demonstrate screen redraw problems and lagging performance. In addition, some drivers and other software which directly interacts with the hardware do not work and there is also no access to the Mac OS 9 Finder.
In May 2002, at Apple's Worldwide Developers Conference in San Jose, California, Steve Jobs, accompanied by a coffin, held a mock funeral to announce that Apple had stopped development of Mac OS 9. Mac OS 9.2.2, introduced in December 2001, was the final version of Mac OS 9 and the end of the classic Mac OS.
In June 2005, Jobs announced that the Macintosh platform would be transitioning to Intel x86 microprocessors. Developer documentation of the Rosetta PowerPC emulation layer revealed that applications written for Mac OS 8 or 9 would not run on x86-based Macs. The Classic Environment remains in the PowerPC version of OS X 10.4; however, x86 versions of OS X do not support the Classic environment.
As a workaround for Intel-based Macs, Mac OS 9 can be emulated up to version 9.0.4 by using SheepShaver, a PowerPC emulator. It cannot emulate above 9.0.4 because SheepShaver does not emulate a memory management unit. The PearPC PowerPC emulator does not support Mac OS 9.
Retail copies of Mac OS 9 are still available from several Internet businesses at varying prices. Mac OS 9 is no longer available from Apple. Although now classified as abandonware, as development on it has ended, it is still in use by those who cannot upgrade to OS X due to hardware limitations, or prefer it to OS X. Mac OS 9 is also a popular choice for retrocomputing hobbyists. Mac gamers also sometimes revert to Classic (often via emulation) in order to play some of the earlier, non-supported games, for example, Civilization II, and the Marathon Trilogy.
Aside from original Apple based hardware that is still maintained and operated, Mac OS 9 can be operated in other environments such as Windows and Unix. For example, the aforementioned SheepShaver software was not designed for use on x86 platforms and required an actual PowerPC processor present in the machine it was running on similar to a hypervisor. Although it provides PowerPC processor support, it can only run up to Mac OS 9.0.4 because it does not emulate a memory management unit.
|9.0||October 23, 1999||Initial release||Sonata||iMac G3||99 USD|
(Shipped with Macs)
|Bug fixes.||N/A||PowerBook (FireWire)||Only shipped with referred Macs|
(Shipped with Macs)
|iMac/iMac DV/iMac DV SE|
|9.0.4||April 4, 2000||Improved USB and FireWire support.
Other bug fixes.
|Minuet||iMac G3 (slot loading)||Free Update|
|9.1||January 9, 2001 (download)||Integrated Disc Burning within Finder.
Implementation of Finder 'Window' menu.
|Fortissimo||iBook 14 inch and 12 inch|
|9.2||June 18, 2001
(Shipped with Macs)
|G3 processor as minimum system requirement.
Improved speed and Classic Environment support.
|Moonlight||Power Mac G4 (QuickSilver)||Only shipped with referred Macs|
|9.2.1||August 21, 2001 (download)||Minor bug fixes.||Limelight||iBook (Late 2001), PowerBook G4 (Gigabit Ethernet)||Free Update|
|9.2.2||December 5, 2001 (download)||Bug fixes relating to Classic Environment.||LU1||eMac|
Updates to Mac OS 9 include 9.0.4, 9.1, 9.2.1, and 9.2.2. Mac OS 9.0.4 was a collection of bug fixes primarily relating to USB and FireWire support. Mac OS 9.1 included integrated CD burning support in the Macintosh Finder and added a new Window menu in the Finder for switching between open windows. Mac OS 9.2 increased performance noticeably and improved Classic Environment support. While Mac OS 9.2 is only officially supported on G3 Power Macs, it could still be installed on certain unsupported PowerPC models through the use of third-party software, such as Mac OS 9 Helper. 
|This section requires expansion with: iMac G5 models' compatibility. (June 2014)|
|Power Macintosh 6100||Yes||Yes: Must install from CD||No|
|Power Macintosh 7100|
|Power Macintosh 8100|
|PowerBook 1400||Partial: Password Security unsupported|
|PowerBook 3400||Yes: Hard disk driver must not be updated|
|Power Macintosh 5200||Yes|
|Power Macintosh 5300|
|Power Macintosh 5500|
|Power Macintosh 4400|
|Power Macintosh 6200|
|Power Macintosh 6300|
|Power Macintosh 6400|
|Power Macintosh 6500|
|Power Macintosh 7200|
|Power Macintosh 7300|
|Power Macintosh 7500|
|Power Macintosh 8500|
|Power Macintosh 7600|
|Power Macintosh 8600|
|Power Macintosh 9600|
|Twentieth Anniversary Macintosh|
|PowerBook G3 Series||Yes||Yes|
|PowerBook (FireWire)||Yes: Machine-specific version only|
|PowerBook G4[A]||No||Yes: Machine-specific version only|
|PowerBook G4 (Gigabit Ethernet)[A]||No||Yes: Machine-specific version only|
|PowerBook G4 (DVI)[A]||Yes: Machine-specific version only||Yes|
|PowerBook G4 (1 GHz/867 MHz)[A]||No||Yes: Machine-specific version only|
|PowerBook G4 (12-inch)[B]||Partial: Classic Environment only|
|PowerBook G4 (17-inch)[B]|
|PowerBook G4 (12-inch DVI)[B]|
|PowerBook G4 (12-inch 1.33 GHz)[B]|
|PowerBook G4 (12-inch 1.5 GHz)[B]|
|PowerBook G4 (15-inch FW 800)[B]|
|PowerBook G4 (15-inch 1.5/1.33 GHz)[B]|
|PowerBook G4 (17-inch 1.33 GHz)[B]|
|PowerBook G4 (17-inch 1.5 GHz)[B]|
|iBook (FireWire)||Yes: Machine-specific version only|
|iBook (Dual USB)[A]||No||Yes: Machine-specific version only|
|iBook (Late 2001)[A]|
|iBook (14.1 LCD)[A]||No|
|iBook (16 VRAM)[A]|
|iBook (Opaque 16 VRAM)[A]|
|iBook (32 VRAM)[A]|
|iBook (14.1 LCD 32 VRAM)[A]|
|iBook (Early 2003)[A]||Yes: Machine-specific version only|
|iBook G4[B]||Partial: Classic Environment only|
|iBook G4 (14-inch)[B]|
|iBook G4 (Early 2004)[B]|
|Power Macintosh G3 All-In-One||Yes|
|Power Macintosh G3|
|Power Macintosh G3 (Blue and White)|
|iMac G3 (266 MHz, 333 MHz)|
|iMac G3 (Slot Loading)|
|iMac G3 (Summer 2000)||Yes: Machine-specific version only||Yes||Yes|
|iMac G3 (Early 2001)[A]||No||Yes: Machine-specific version only|
|iMac G3 (Summer 2001)[A]|
|iMac G4 (February 2003)[B]||Partial: Classic Environment only|
|iMac G4 (17-inch 1 GHz)[B]|
|iMac G4 (USB 2.0)[B]|
|eMac (ATI Graphics CD-ROM drive)[A]||Yes: Machine-specific version only|
|eMac (ATI Graphics Combo drive)[A]|
|eMac (ATI Graphics SuperDrive)[B]||Partial: Classic Environment only|
|Power Mac G4 (PCI Graphics)||Yes||Yes|
|Power Mac G4 (AGP Graphics)|
|Power Mac G4 (Gigabit Ethernet)||Yes: Machine-specific version only|
|Power Mac G4 Cube|
|Power Mac G4 (Digital Audio)[A]||No||Yes: Machine-specific version only||Yes|
|Power Mac G4 (QuickSilver)[A]||No|
|Power Mac G4 (QuickSilver 2002)[A]||No||Yes: Machine-specific version only|
|Power Mac G4 (Mirrored Drive Doors)[A]|
|Power Mac G4 (FW 800)[B]||Partial: Classic Environment only|
|Power Mac G4 (Mirrored Drive Doors 2003)[A]||Yes: Machine-specific version only|
|Power Mac G5||Partial: Classic Environment only|
|Power Mac G5 (June 2004)|
|Power Mac G5 (Late 2004)|
|Power Mac G5 (Early 2005)|
|Power Mac G5 (Late 2005)|
|Mac mini (G4)[B]|
- 1Some newest G3 and most G4 Macs can only run at least Mac OS 9.1, and some only run at least Mac OS 9.2. This is because the late development of G3 Macs and the mid-development of G4 Macs was during the development of Mac OS 9 and only the versions the G4 Macs support were designed to compatible with those G4 Macs.
- 1Some newest G4 and all G5 Macs can only run at least Mac OS 9.2, and can only run its compatible versions of Mac OS 9 in OS X's Classic Environment because the "Mac OS ROM" was never updated to allow those Macs, which were developed during the OS X era, to directly boot it (but probably continued to run in userspace, with the restriction that it would only run at least Mac OS 9.2, so it was still supported in the Classic Environment).
- "October 23, 1999: Mac OS 9 Released". AppleMatters.com. Retrieved 2009-11-28.
- "Re: newbie question: What is a Blue Task". Apple.com. Retrieved 2007-03-29.
- "Apple WWDC 2002-The Death Of Mac OS 9". YouTube.com. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- "MacHelp What's New in Mac OS 9". Apple.com. Retrieved 2007-03-29.
- "Mac OS 9: What's New - Speakable Items". Apple.com. Retrieved 2007-03-29.
- "Frequently Asked Questions". PearPC Developers. Retrieved 2006-11-16.
- "E-Maculation wiki". Retrieved 24 December 2012.
- "Mac OS 8 and 9 compatibility with Macintosh computers". Apple Inc. Retrieved 2009-02-28.
- Technote TN1176 Mac OS 9 at the Wayback Machine (archived March 30, 2009) from apple.com
- Mac OS 9 "Special Report" from MacInTouch
- Apple | iMac Firmware Update