|Regions with significant populations|
|Madurai, Theni, Ramanathapuram, Virudhunagar, Thirunelveli, Sivagangai, Pudukottai, Thanjavur, Trichy, Thoothukudi, Dindigul, Thiruvarur, Nagapattinam, Malaysia, Singapore, Canada, Cen. Province, Chhattisgarh|
|Tamil, English, Indian Languages|
|Related ethnic groups|
The Thevar people (Thevar literally meaning "Aristocrats" and "Kings" in Sanskrit) collectively forms the Mukkulathor (meaning: people of the three clans). native to the Central and Southern districts of Tamil Nadu The name "Mukkulathor" alludes to the three roughly designated groups Agamudayar, Maravar, Kallar and which make up this large endogamous social group. Some Thevars constitute parts of the vikingdom and warriors of Tamilakkam. Kallars and Maravars were inhabitants of the Palai (desert) region during the Sangam period. The literature during the Sangam period divided the regions based on climate and topography. Thanjavur and Madurai are places which are highly populated with this society
Mukkulathors are found majority of all over the southern and central districts of Tamil Nadu. There is also a small community in Chhattisgarh where they migrated to during British rule. The Royal houses of Sivagangai, Ramnad, Singampatti and Pudukkottai all belong to the Mukkulathor community. Titles of Thevar People includes Vaandayar,Thondaimaan,Servai,Ambalakarar,Naattar,udayar etc.
Agamudayars (Tamil: அகமுடையார்),one of the clans in Mukkulathor . The word Agamudayar is from the root word 'Agam' which means bravery. Agamudayars were expert in making better warriors and form the greatest part in most of the chera,chola,pandiya wars.
The Marudhu Pandiyar brothers (Periya Marudhu and Chinna Marudhu) ruled Sivagangai, Tamil Nadu towards the end of the 18th century. The Marudhu brothers were the first to issue a proclamation of independence from the colonial British rule from Trichy Thiruvarangam Temple, Tamil Nadu on 10 June 1801, more than 56 years before what is generally said to be the First War of Indian Independence which broke out mainly in Northern India in the year 1857.
Agamudayars were expert in handling the weapon "Boomerang" which was known in Tamil as "Valari". The British troops were scattered by maruthu's army when they tried to capture "Kalaiyar kovil" built by Maruthu Pandiyars.
Agamudayar s are largely found in the Southern Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore, Madurai, Theni, Virudhunagar, Thirunelveli, Dindigul, Sivagangai, Ramanathapuram, Pudukkottai, Tanjore, Thiruvarur, Nagapattinam and districts of Tamil Nadu
Sub-sections *Rajakulam *Kottai patru *Irumbuthalai *Ivali Naadu *Naattu Mangalam *Rajapoja *Rajavasal *Kalian *Sani *Malai Naadu
Kallar (Tamil: கள்ளர்) Kallars are one of the three related castes which constitute the Mukkulathor confederacy. They are described as "A fearless community shows many signs of independence and non-submission to any form of subjugation".Also known as Kallan.
Kallars are largely found in the Southern districts of Tiruchy, Madurai, Thanjavur, Karaikudi, Pudukkottai, Theni, Dindigul, Sivagangai, Thiruvarur, kanniyakumari, Nagapattinam, Thirunelveli, Theni, Virudhunagar districts of Tamil Nadu and Northern Sri Lanka.
In Tamil Nadu Kallars are called by various Surnames, these names comes to them during various times by the place they have ruled, the place of the battlefield and to state their strong valour and bravery in the battle with the foreign forces.
Another important Kallar subcaste is the Piramalai Kallar. They are a highly traditional people and have preserved their ancient customs to the present day. They are also believed to be the oldest inhabitants of the Tamil country with reports of their presence going back to Tamil literary works of the 4th century BC. Recent study by BBC confirmed that they migrated to India from Africa and share the same M130 genepool as the aboriginals of Australia.They are found mainly in the districts of Madurai(Usilampatti), Dindigul and Theni. Their popular deity is Amman, the Mother Goddess.Currently they constitute 4% of the whole population in Tamil Nadu.
See also main article Maravar
Maravar (Tamil: மறவர்) are one of the oldest social groups in India.The writers of the Sangam Age place them in rural settlements withdrawn from cities. Maravars are the courageous breed and were involved in all the major wars that Tamil Nadu witnessed. Kottravai(Durga), the goddess of Maravars worshipped in Palai region prescribed in Silapathikaram. The Kingdom of Ramnad was ruled by the Setupati Kings. Ramanathapuram and Sivagangai districts are Maravar homeland from ancient times .
Maravars are found predominantly in the Southern districts of Tamil Nadu viz., Tirunelveli, Madurai, Theni, Dindigul, Sivagangai, Ramanathapuram, Thanjavur, Thiruvarur, Pudukottai, Virudhunagar, Thoothukudi and Kanyakumari districts of Tamil Nadu. The Southern martial arts of Kalarippayattu, Silambam, Varma Kalai have been practiced primarily by Maravars, Kallars, Nadars, Gounders and Nairs of South India. But during the 18th and 19th centuries, most of the Maravars were assimilated in to the Tamil Padam Nair subcaste of the Nair community. The Maravar regiment of the Travancore army was known as "Maravar Padai", which supplemented Nair Pattalam, the larger indigenous military unit. Tamil Padam Nair is recognized as a part of the Malayala Kshatriya social grouping.
The Maravar community. There are Appa Nattu Kondyankottai,anju koththu maravar(thiruvadanai pancha pandiyars),Chembiya Nattu Maravar,Agathu Maravar,Uppu katti Maravar,Kurinchi katti Maravar,Vanikutti Maravar,Oru nattu Maravar. The Maravars are still maintaining "Killai"(branches) as their sub sects. According to the list given by Fawcett(1903) (belongs to British East India Company), there are different Killai (sub castes of Maravars). They are Maurvidu, Viramuditanki, Setar, Akatiyar, Seyankondar, Nattumannar, and Alakar Pandiayan. Also, it is found that "Kotthu" (main branch of tree) is a higher order unit of Killai. There were four kothu as follows, 'Milagu' (Pepper), 'Vetrilai' (Betel Leaf), 'Mundiri' (Cashew Nut), and 'Sirakka' (Cumin/Fennel). The Killai is inherited from mother. So a boy or girl will not marry in their same Killai. It is assumed that they are brother and sister. Such a practice is no longer prevailing amongst other maravars. The married women of kondyankottai maravers wear "Thali" (Thirumangalyam) in the shape of Shiva lingam. So it is called "Linga Thali". Most of the Tamil castes wear the same type of "Linga Thali".
The anju koththu maravars are the killai is inherited from mother. so a boy or girl will not marry in their same killai. it is assumed that they are brother & sister. such a practice is no longer pravailing amongst other maravars. the married women of anju koththu maravars wear "thali"(thirumangalam) in the type of five gold coin thali. so it is called anju koththu thali.only the pancha pandiyar thali anju koththu mangalyam ramanathapuram, sivagangai, pudhukottai anju koththu maravars livings area home area thiruvadanai
The Chembiya Nattu Maravars are Surya vamsam. They are historically from Thanjavur. Kondayan kottai maravars women were having habits of maruthalli. But Chembiya Nattu Maravars women were having habit of Udankattai yeruthal. And 6 martial suicides are practising by Maravar community and it is called avipillai. The Fame of maravars are written in Nattrinai, kurunthogai, Agananooru, Puranaanooru, Kalithogai and many pathu pattu collections. Among maravars Chembiya marvar belong to chola dynasty, Tamil padam marvar belong to chera later become thiruvithangur.
The sure name of Maravars are
All the maravar has a common tittle called Thevar.
- Valangai maran
- Vilangu Thevan
- Puli maran
- Gora maran
- Madurai Thevan
- Vallai Thevan
- Neela maran
- Kottravaien Sayon
- Alakiya Pandiyan
British colonisation of India was strongly resisted in the South especially in Mukkulathor country.
Puli Thevar from the eighteenth century(1715–1768) is remembered as the first Indian king to have fought and defeated the British in India. His exploits have since become legendary.
Resistance to British rule was also offered by Padal Vellaiya Tevan who fought the British along with Kattabomman. His son Desakaval Senbaga Tevan is also remembered for his exploits.
- V.S.Venkidusamy Thevar[Landlord,social reformer and a great don] from Nadiyam village, Peravurani taluk, Thanjavur district.He is the key for periyar E.V.Ramasamy to start Dravidar kalaham with his brother V.S.Kulanthai Thevar.
From the historical perspective, 1932's V.S.VENKIDU THEVAR tells the story of the English people rule and,later, British acquisition of wide territories in India severely criticizing those involved in this conquests and in the lates administration of the conquered territories,as well an illuminating the harmful effects of commercial monopolies such as that of the imperial East India company.As a reformer V.S.V.THEVAR applies political theory to the description of the civilisation of India from madarasappattinam Tamil Nadu and ceylon(now Sri Lanka).His interests is in institutions,ideas,and historical processes,while his work is relatively lacking in human interest,in that he does not seek to paint memorable portraits of Robert Clive, Warren Hastings and the other leading players in the history of British India nor of its famous battles. Indeed the history has been called a work of Benthamite 'philosophical history' from which the reader is supposed to draw lessons about human nature, reason and religion.
- கள்ளர் பட்டப்பெயர்கள் - Pulamai Venkathachala Vanniyar
- "Inscriptions copied from Ambukkovil temple". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 28 June 2004.
- Thurston, Edgar; K. Rangachari (1909). Castes and Tribes of Southern India Volume I - A and B. Madras: Government Press.
- On Tamil Militarism- The suppression of Tamil military castes
- Genetic structure of four socio-culturally diversified caste populations of southwest India