Matilda II

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This article is about the tank. For the person, see Matilda II of Boulogne. For the earlier Infantry Tank, see Matilda I (tank).
Infantry Tank Mark II
Matilda Mk II
A Matilda's crew display a captured Italian flag as they enter Tobruk, January 1941
Type Infantry tank[1]
Place of origin United Kingdom[1]
Service history
In service 1939–1945
Used by  United Kingdom
 Australia
 Soviet Union
Wars Second World War
Production history
Designer Mechanization Board and Messrs Vulcan[1]
Designed 1937[1]
Manufacturer Vulcan Foundry and others
Produced 1937–1943
Number built 2,987
Variants see Variants below
Specifications
Weight 25 tons[2]
Length 15 ft 11 in (6.0 m)
Width 8 ft 6 in (2.6 m)[3]
Height 8 ft 3 in (2.5 m)
Crew 4 [3] (driver, gunner, loader, commander)

Armour 20 to 78 mm max[3]
Main
armament
2 pounder (40 mm),[4]
93 armour-piercing rounds[4]
Secondary
armament
7.92 mm Besa machine gun[4]
2,925 rounds[4]
Engine diesel 6-cylinder 7 litre engines: 2×AEC[nb 1][4] or 2×Leyland[2]
2×94–95 bhp[5]
Power/weight 6.55 hp/tonne
Transmission Wilson epicyclic pre-selector gearbox, 6 speeds[6]
Suspension Coil spring[2]
Operational
range
160 miles (257 km) [3]
Speed 16 miles per hour (26 km/h) (on road)[3]
9 miles per hour (14 km/h) (off road)
Steering
system
Rackham clutch[6]

The Infantry Tank Mark II (sometimes referred to as Matilda II, Matilda senior, by General Staff Specification A12, Waltzing Matilda,[7][8] or simply an 'I' tank) was a British infantry tank of the Second World War. It served from the start of the war to its end and became particularly associated with the North Africa Campaign. It was replaced in service by the Infantry Tank Mk III Valentine. With its heavy armour the Matilda II was an excellent infantry support tank, but with somewhat limited speed and armament.

When the earlier Infantry Tank Mark I which was also known as "Matilda" was removed from service by 1940, the Infantry Tank Mk II became known simply as the "Matilda".

Development history[edit]

The first suggestion for a larger Infantry Tank was made in 1936, with specification A12 and contractor decided around the end of the year.[9]

The Infantry Tank Mk II was designed at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich to General Staff specification A.12[1] and built by the Vulcan Foundry. The design was based on the A7[10] (which had started development in 1929) [11] rather than on the Infantry Tank Mk I, which was a two-man tank with a single machine gun for armament.

When war was recognised as imminent, production of the Matilda II was ordered and that of the Matilda I curtailed. The first order was placed shortly after trials were completed with 140 ordered from Vulcan Foundry in mid 1938.[12]

Design[edit]

The Matilda Senior[13] weighed around 27 tons (27 tonnes or 60,000 lb; more than twice as much as its predecessor) and was armed with a QF 2 pounder (40 mm) tank gun in a three-man turret. The turret traversed by hydraulic motor or by hand through 360 degrees; the gun itself could be elevated through an arc from -15[nb 2] to +20 degrees.[4] One of the most serious weaknesses of the Matilda II was the lack of a high-explosive round for its main gun. A high-explosive shell was designed for the 2 pounder but for reasons never explained it was not placed in production. The tank's best weapon against un-armoured targets was thus its single machine gun.[15]

Like many other British infantry tanks, it was heavily armoured; from 20 mm (0.79 in) at the thinnest it was 78 mm (3.1 in) at the front, much more than most contemporaries. The turret armour was 75 mm (3.0 in) all round,[4] the hull side armour was 65 to 70 millimetres (2.6 to 2.8 in),[nb 3] and the rear armour, protecting the engine to sides and rear, was 55 millimetres (2.2 in).[4] The frontal armour was 75 millimetres (3.0 in), although the nose plates top and bottom were thinner but angled. The turret roof was the same thickness as the hull roof and engine deck: 20 millimetres (0.79 in).[14] The German Panzer III and Panzer IV tanks, of the same period, had 30 to 50 millimetres (1.2 to 2.0 in) thick hull armour. The shape of the nose armour was based on Christie's designs,[16] and came to a narrow point with storage lockers added on either side. The heavy armour of the Matilda's cast turret became legendary; for a time in 1940–41 the Matilda earned the nickname "Queen of the Desert".[17] The sheer thickness of its armour made the tank impervious to the 37 mm and 50 mm calibre anti-tank guns that were then commonly used by the Germans, as well as the 47 mm used by the Italians in North Africa; only the 75 mm PaK 40 anti-tank gun — and as demonstrated as early as the Battle of France on May 21, 1940 from the counterattack at Arras, the 88 mm anti-aircraft gun — could penetrate its armour reliably.

While the Matilda possessed a degree of protection that was then unmatched in the North African theatre, the sheer weight of the armour mounted on the vehicle contributed to a very low average speed of about 6 mph (9.7 km/h) on desert terrain. At the time, this was not thought to be a problem since British infantry tank doctrine prioritized heavy armour and trench-crossing ability over speed and cross-country mobility (which was considered to be characteristic of cruiser tanks such as the Crusader). The slow speed of the Matilda was further exacerbated by a troublesome suspension and a comparatively weak power unit, the latter of which was actually created using two bus engines[18] linked to a single shaft. This arrangement was both complicated and time-consuming to maintain, as it required technician crews had to work on each engine separately and subjected automotive components to uneven wear-and-tear. It did however, provide some mechanical redundancy, since failure in one engine would not prevent the Matilda from travelling under its own power using the other.[19]

The tank's suspension system was that which had been developed by Vickers for their Medium C prototype in the mid-1920s.[20] The tank was carried by five double wheel bogies on each side. Four of the bogies were on bellcranks in pairs with a common horizontal coil spring. The fifth, rearmost, bogie was sprung against a hull bracket. Between the first bogie and the idler wheel was a larger diameter vertically sprung "jockey wheel". The first Matildas had return rollers; these were replaced in later models by track skids, which were far easier to manufacture and to service in the field.

The turret carried the main armament with the machine gun to the right in a rotating internal mantlet. Traverse was by a hydraulic system. As the gun was balanced for ease of movement by the gunner much of the breech end was behind the trunnions. Two smoke grenade launchers were carried on the right side of the turret.[21] The grenade launcher mechanisms were cut down Lee-Enfield rifles, each firing a single smoke grenade. It's camouflage scheme was designed by Major Denys Pavitt of the Camouflage Development And Training Centre.( Ref: 'Camouflage' by Tim Newark Published by Thames & Hudson) Based on the Dazzle paintings of first world war ships. Painted in block colours, visually breaking the tank up in half.

Production history[edit]

The first Matilda was produced in 1937 but only two were in service when war broke out in September 1939. Following the initial order from Vulcan Foundry, a second order was placed shortly after with Ruston & Hornsby.[22] Some 2,987 tanks were produced by the Vulcan Foundry, John Fowler & Co. of Leeds, Ruston & Hornsby, and later by the London, Midland and Scottish Railway at Horwich Works; Harland and Wolff, and the North British Locomotive Company Glasgow. The last were delivered in August 1943. Peak production was 1,330 in 1942, the most common model being the Mark IV.[23]

The Matilda was difficult to manufacture. For example, the pointed nose was a single casting that, upon initial release from the mould, was thicker than required in some areas. To avoid a needless addition to the tank's weight, the thick areas were ground away. This process required highly skilled workers and additional time. The complex suspension and multi-piece hull side coverings also added time to manufacturing.[16]

Combat history[edit]

French Campaign of 1940[edit]

The Matilda was first used in combat by the 7th Royal Tank Regiment in France in 1940. Only 23 of the unit's tanks were Matilda IIs; the rest of the British Infantry Tanks in France were A11 Matildas.[24] Its 2-pounder gun was comparable to other tank guns in the 37 to 45 mm range. Due to the thickness of its armour, it was largely immune to the guns of the German tanks and anti-tank guns in France.[25] The famous 88 mm anti-aircraft guns were pressed into service as the only effective counter. In the counter-attack at Arras of May 21, 1940, British Matilda IIs (and Matilda Is) were able to briefly disrupt German progress but being unsupported, their losses were high. All vehicles surviving the battles around Dunkirk were abandoned when the BEF evacuated.

North Africa 1940 to 1942[edit]

A Matilda advancing through Egypt as part of Operation Compass.

Up to early 1942, in the war in North Africa, the Matilda proved highly effective against Italian and German tanks, although vulnerable to the larger calibre and medium calibre anti-tank guns.

In late 1940, during Operation Compass, Matildas of the British 7th Armoured Division wreaked havoc among the Italian forces in Egypt. The Italians were equipped with L3 tankettes and M11/39 medium tanks, neither of which had any chance against the Matildas. Italian gunners were to discover that the Matildas were impervious to a wide assortment of artillery. Matildas continued to confound the Italians as the British pushed them out of Egypt and entered Libya to take Bardia and Tobruk. Even as late as November 1941, German infantry combat reports show the impotence of ill-equipped infantry against the Matilda.[26]

Ultimately, in the rapid manoeuvre warfare often practised in the open desert of North Africa, the Matilda's low speed and unreliable steering mechanism became major problems. Another problem was the lack of a high-explosive shell (the appropriate shell existed but was not issued). When the German Afrika Korps arrived in North Africa, the 88 mm anti-aircraft gun was again pressed into service against the Matilda, causing heavy losses during Operation Battleaxe, when sixty-four Matildas were lost. The arrival of the more powerful 50mm Pak 38 anti-tank gun also provided a means for the German infantry to engage Matilda tanks at combat ranges. Nevertheless, during Operation Crusader Matilda tanks of 1st and 32nd Army Tank Brigades were instrumental in the breakout from Tobruk and the capture of the Axis fortress of Bardia.[27] The operation was decided by the infantry tanks after the failure of the cruiser tank equipped 7th Armoured Division to overcome the Axis tank forces in the open desert.[28]

A captured Matilda put into use by the German forces, is recaptured and its crew taken prisoner by New Zealand troops, 3 December 1941 during the battle to open the corridor to Tobruk, Operation Crusader.

As the German army received new tanks with more powerful guns, as well as more powerful anti-tank guns and ammunition, the Matilda proved less and less effective. Firing tests conducted by the Afrikakorps showed that the Matilda had become vulnerable to a number of German weapons at ordinary combat ranges.[29] Due to the "painfully small"[30] size of its turret ring - 54 inches (1.37 m) - the tank could not be up-gunned sufficiently to continue to be effective against more heavily armoured enemy tanks. It was also somewhat expensive to produce. Vickers proposed an alternative the Valentine tank, which had the same gun and a similar level of armour protection but on a faster and cheaper chassis derived from that of their "heavy cruiser" tank. With the arrival of the Valentine in autumn 1941, the Matilda was phased out by the British Army through attrition, with lost vehicles no longer replaced. By the time of the battle of El Alamein (October 1942), few Matildas were in service, with many having been lost during Operation Crusader and then the Gazala battles in early summer of 1942. Around twenty-five took part in the battle as mine-clearing, Matilda Scorpion mine flail tanks.

Minor campaigns[edit]

In early 1941, a small number of Matildas were used during the East Africa Campaign at the Battle of Keren. However, the mountainous terrain of East Africa did not allow the tanks of B Squadron 4th Royal Tank Regiment to be as effective as the tanks of the 7th Royal Tank Regiment had been in Egypt and Libya.

A few Matildas of the 7th RTR were present on Crete during the German invasion, and all of them were lost.[31]

Pacific Theatre[edit]

Australian howitzer-equipped Matilda in combat at the Battle of Tarakan

In the Pacific Japanese forces were lacking in heavy anti-tank guns and the Matilda remained in service with several Australian regiments in the Australian 4th Armoured Brigade, in the South West Pacific Area. They first saw active service in the Huon Peninsula campaign in October 1943. Matilda II tanks remained in action until the last day of the war in the Wewak, Bougainville and Borneo campaigns, which made the Matilda the only British tank to remain in service throughout the war.[3]

Foreign use[edit]

The Red Army received 918 of the 1,084 Matildas sent to the USSR.[3] The Soviet Matildas saw action as early as the Battle of Moscow and became fairly common during 1942. Unsurprisingly, the tank was found to be too slow and unreliable. Crews often complained that snow and dirt were accumulating behind the "skirt" panels, clogging the suspension. The slowness and heavy armour made them comparable to the Red Army's KV-1 heavy tanks, but the Matilda had nowhere near the firepower of the KV. Most Soviet Matildas were expended during 1942 but a few served on as late as 1944. The Soviets modified the tanks with the addition of sections of steel welded to the tracks to give better grip.[3]

Use of captured Matildas[edit]

Captured Matilda tank, summer 1942

Following Operation Battleaxe a dozen Matildas left behind the Axis lines were repaired and put into service by the Germans.[32] The German designation was Infanterie Panzerkampfwagen Mk.II 748(e) translating roughly as "Infantry Tank Mk.II Number 748 English". The Matildas were well regarded by their German users[33][clarification needed] although their use in battle caused confusion to both sides, despite extra-prominent German markings.[32]

Variants[edit]

  • Infantry Tank Mark II Matilda II[4]
First production model[34] armed with a Vickers machine gun.[4]
  • Infantry Tank Mark II.A. Matilda II Mk II[4][34]
Vickers machine gun replaced by Besa machine gun. The "A" denoted a change in armament.[4]
  • Infantry Tank Mark II.A.* Matilda II Mk III[4][34]
New Leyland diesel engine used in place of AEC engines.[4]
  • Infantry Tank Mark II Matilda II Mk IV[34]
With improved engines, rigid mounting and no turret lamp[35]
  • Infantry Tank Mark II Matilda II Mk V[34]
Improved gear box. Westinghouse air servo used.[35][36]
  • Matilda II Close Support (CS)
Variant with QF 3 inch (76 mm) [nb 4] howitzer firing smoke shells. These were generally issued to HQ units.[37]
  • Baron I, II, III, IIIA
Experimental Matilda chassis with mine flail - never used operationally.
  • Matilda Scorpion I / II
Matilda chassis with a mine flail. Used in North Africa, during and after the battle of El Alamein.[clarification needed]


The normal turret was replaced by a cylindrical one containing a searchlight (projected through a vertical slit) and a BESA machine gun.
  • Matilda With 76mm Zis gun
Lend Lease Matilda supplied to the USSR, where an attempt to up-gun it with the T-34's 76.2mm F-34 gun was made. The design was most likely considered impractical due to the small size of the Matilda's turret.[38]
  • Matilda with A27 turret
Matilda with modified chassis and Ordnance QF 6 pounder in an A27 turret.[39] One produced, no documentation other than photographs of it remain.[40]
  • Black Prince
Radio-controlled prototype produced in 1941 using A12E2 with Wilson transmission. Planned uses included use as a mobile target, for drawing fire and so reveal hidden anti-tank guns, or for demolition missions. Planned order for 60 cancelled as it would require conversion of Rackham clutch transmission to the Wilson type.[41]
Australian variants
  • Matilda Frog (25)
Flame-thrower tank.
  • Murray and Murray FT
Flame-thrower tank.
  • Matilda Tank-Dozer
Bulldozer tank. A hydraulic operated bulldozer blade of similar design to those fitted to the American M3 s.
  • Matilda Hedgehog (6)
Officially known as the Matilda Projector, Hedgehog, No. 1 Mark I,[42] this fitted a Hedgehog 7-chambered spigot mortar in an armoured box on the rear hull of several Australian Matilda tanks. The projector was elevated by hydraulics adapted from the Logan traversing mechanism used in M3 Medium tank turrets[42] and electrically fired either individually or in a salvo of six, from the 12 o'clock position;[43] the fifth tube could not be fired until the turret was traversed to 1 o'clock,[43] to move the radio antenna out of the bomb's flightpath. Each bomb weighed 65 lb (29 kg) and contained 30 to 35 lb (14 to 16 kg) of high explosive. The range was up to 400 m (440 yd). Aiming was accomplished by pointing the entire tank; the mounting had no independent traverse,[44] so accuracy was not spectacular, but adequate for the task.[43] Trials at Southport, Queensland, in May 1945 were pronounced a complete success, and the Projector would have been impressive against enemy bunkers, but the war ended before it was used operationally.[43]

Surviving tanks[edit]

The Matilda Hedgehog at the RAAC Museum, Puckapunyal, Australia (2007)

Around 70 Matilda IIs survive in various degrees of preservation. The majority (around 30) are in Australia, either in museums, displayed as public monuments or in private ownership. A notable collection is that of the Royal Australian Armoured Corps Memorial and Army Tank Museum, at Puckapunyal, Australia, which has five Matilda IIs on display, including a Matilda Frog flame–tank, a Matilda Hedgehog and a Matilda Bulldozer.[45]

Tanks in running condition are owned by the Bovington Tank Museum in the United Kingdom and by several private owners in Australia. The Bovington Museum also displays the only surviving Matilda Canal Defence Light. Other examples are displayed at the Kubinka Tank Museum in Russia, the Royal Museum of the Armed Forces and Military History in Belgium, the Yad La-Shiryon museum in the Latrun, the Musée des Blindés in France, the Armoured Corps Museum at Ahmednagar Fort in India and the Military Vehicle Technology Foundation, a private collection in the United States.[46]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

Footnotes
  1. ^ AEC engine model A183 on the left hand side and A184 on the right hand side.
  2. ^ The WWII Equipment states that the gun could move through an elevation arc of -20º to +20º.[14]
  3. ^ The 65 mm was made up of the hull itself and the side skirt armour [14]
  4. ^ The shell cartridge was 76.2 x 134R. On the Infantry Tank Mk IV, the Churchill tank, the gun was used for HE
Citations
  1. ^ a b c d e Jentz, p. 11
  2. ^ a b c Jentz, p. 13
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Bean, pp. 147–148
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Jentz, p. 12
  5. ^ Jentz, pp. 12–13[verification needed]
  6. ^ a b "Matilda Infantry Tank". Doug's 'Heavy Metal' Gallery. Livesteammodels.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-02-15. 
  7. ^ ""Waltzing Matilda" is 30-ton tank". Evening Standard (London). 4 July 1941. 
  8. ^ ""Waltzing Matilda" is 30-ton tank". Barrier Miner (Broken Hill, NSW). 5 July 1941. p. 6. 
  9. ^ Fletcher p4
  10. ^ "Arcane Fighting Vehicles - AFVs". Geocities.com. Archived from the original on 2009-10-28. Retrieved 2010-02-15. 
  11. ^ "Britain's A7 Medium Tanks - World War II Vehicles, Tanks, and Airplanes". Wwiivehicles.com. 1940-05-10. Retrieved 2010-02-15. 
  12. ^ Fletcher 1994, p. 8
  13. ^ Fletcher 1994, p. 5
  14. ^ a b c WWII Equipment
  15. ^ Hogg, Ian (1996), Tank Killing, Sidgwick & Jackson, pp. 138–139, ISBN 1-885119-40-2 
  16. ^ a b Fletcher (1994) p. 7
  17. ^ Fletcher (1994) p. 14
  18. ^ Fletcher (1994) p.6
  19. ^ Fletcher p. 6
  20. ^ Fletcher p7
  21. ^ Fletcher p. 8
  22. ^ Fletcher (1994) p8
  23. ^ Boyd
  24. ^ Fletcher p. 10
  25. ^ Sebag-Montifiore, pp. 149, 153
  26. ^ The CRUSADER Project: German Combat Report
  27. ^ Orpen
  28. ^ Murphy Chapter 14 and 15
  29. ^ CRUSADER Project: Firing Trials
  30. ^ Fletcher p. 9
  31. ^ Handel, Paul, Matilda Tanks at Retimo on the Island of Crete, Australian Army 
  32. ^ a b Tucker-Jones, Anthony (2007). Hitler's Great Panzer Heist. Pen and Sword Military. ISBN 1-84415-548-X. [page needed]
  33. ^ von Mellenthin, Major-General Friedrich W (1971). Panzer Battles: A Study of the Employment of Armor in the Second World War. First Ballantine Books Edition. ISBN 0-345-24440-0. [page needed]
  34. ^ a b c d e Fletcher pp. 12–14
  35. ^ a b Mark Bannerman, Robert Oehler. Modelling the Matilda Infantry tank. Osprey. p. 6. 
  36. ^ Fletcher, p 14
  37. ^ Fletcher, p. 12
  38. ^ http://www.battlefield.ru/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=156&Itemid=80&lang=en
  39. ^ Photo
  40. ^ Fletcher 1994 p14
  41. ^ Fletcher 1994 p40
  42. ^ a b Fletcher, David. Matilda Infantry Tank 1938-45 (Botley, Oxford, UK: Osprey, 2002), p.42.
  43. ^ a b c d Fletcher, p.43.
  44. ^ Paul Handel—Dust, Sand and Jungle, 2003 RAAC Memorial and Army Tank Museum, ISBN 1-876439-75-0.[page needed]
  45. ^ "Vehicle Displays and Exhibits". RAAC Memorial and Army Tank Museum. Retrieved 15 February 2010. 
  46. ^ "Matilda Infantry tanks (A11 and A12)". Surviving Panzers. 2013-01-13. Retrieved 2013-05-08. 

References[edit]

  • Bean, Tim; Fowler, Will (2002). Russian Tanks of World War II Stalin’s armoured might. Ian Allen publishing. ISBN 0-7110-2898-2. 
  • Fletcher, David; Sarson, Peter (1994). Matilda Infantry Tank 1938–45 (New Vanguard 8). Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-85532-457-1. 
  • Jentz, Thomas L. (1998). Tank Combat in North Africa: The Opening Rounds, Operations Sonnenblume, Brevity, Skorpion and Battleaxe, February 1941 - June 1941. Schiffer Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-7643-0226-4. 
  • Sebag-Montifiore, Hugh. Dunkirk: Fight to the last man. 
  • "Britain's Matilda tanks". WWII Vehicles, Tanks and Airplanes. 
  • Boyd, David (31 December 2008). "Matilda Mk II Infantry Tank (A.12)". WWII Equipment. 
  • Murphy, W.E. The Relief of Tobruk. 
  • Orpen, Neil. War in the Desert. 
  • Perrett, Bryan (1973). The Matilda (Armor in Action). Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0405-6. 
  • Fletcher, David, The Great Tank Scandal - British Armour in the Second World War, Part 1, HMSO 

External links[edit]