Metaves ("higher birds") is a controversial clade proposed by Fain & Houde (2004) and later rescued on the studies of Ericson et al. (2006) and Hackett et al. (2008). This group consists of several lineages that diversified early in Neornithes evolution. These lineages include Strisores (hummingbirds, swifts, nightjars and allies), pigeons, sandgrouses, mesites, Eurypygae (sunbittern and kagu), tropicbirds and Mirandornithes (flamingos and grebes), but the exact members of Metaves and their relationship differs between those studies and the group is only supported by b-fibrinogen gene.
While the relationships of the diverse lineages of Metaves are controversial, a rough consensus family tree is presented below based on Kimball, R.T. et al. (2013) and Yury, T. et al. (2013).
- ^ Fain, Matthew G. & Houde, Peter (2004). "Parallel radiations in the primary clades of birds". Evolution 58 (11): 2558–2573. doi:10.1554/04-235. PMID 15612298.
- ^ Ericson, P.G.P. et al. (2006) Diversification of Neoaves: integration of molecular sequence data and fossils. Biology Letters, 2(4):543–547
- ^ Hackett, S.J. et al. (2008) A Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals Their Evolutionary History. Science, 320(5884):1763–1768.
- ^ Mayr G. (2011). "Metaves, Mirandornithes, Strisores and other novelties - a critical review of the higher-level phylogeny of neornithine birds.". J Zool Syst Evol Res. 49: 58–76.
- ^ Naish, D. (2012). "Birds." Pp. 379-423 in Brett-Surman, M.K., Holtz, T.R., and Farlow, J. O. (eds.), The Complete Dinosaur (Second Edition). Indiana University Press (Bloomington & Indianapolis).
- ^ Kimball, R.T. (2013) Identifying localized biases in large datasets: A case study using the Avian Tree of Life. Mol Phylogenet Evol. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2013.05.029
- ^ Yuri, T. et al. (2013) Parsimony and Model-Based Analyses of Indels in Avian Nuclear Genes Reveal Congruent and Incongruent Phylogenetic Signals. Biology, 2(1):419-444. doi:10.3390/biology2010419