Microwave auditory effect
The microwave auditory effect, also known as the microwave hearing effect or the Frey effect, consists of audible clicks (or, with modulation, whole words) induced by pulsed/modulated microwave frequencies. The clicks are generated directly inside the human head without the need of any receiving electronic device. The effect was first reported by persons working in the vicinity of radar transponders during World War II. These induced sounds are not audible to other people nearby. The microwave auditory effect was later discovered to be inducible with shorter-wavelength portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. During the Cold War era, the American neuroscientist Allan H. Frey studied this phenomenon and was the first to publish information on the nature of the microwave auditory effect.
Pulsed microwave radiation can be heard by some workers; the irradiated personnel perceive auditory sensations of clicking or buzzing. The cause is thought to be thermoelastic expansion of portions of auditory apparatus. The auditory system response occurs at least from 200 MHz to at least 3 GHz. In the tests, repetition rate of 50 Hz was used, with pulse width between 10–70 microseconds. The perceived loudness was found to be linked to the peak power density instead of average power density. At 1.245 GHz, the peak power density for perception was below 80 mW/cm2. However, competing theories explain the results of interferometric holography tests differently. 
In 2003, the US Navy conducted research on an MAE system they called MEDUSA (Mob Excess Deterrent Using Silent Audio) as a way to remotely, temporarily incapacitate personnel. The system relied on the principle of MAE, varying the power and parameters of the microwave pulses “to raise the auditory sensation to the ‘discomfort’ level, deterring personnel from entering a protected perimeter or, if necessary, temporarily incapacitating particular individuals.”
In 2008, Sierra Nevada Corporation, a contractor that worked on the Navy's MEDUSA research, announced that they were seeking funding from the US Department of Defense to build demonstration and transportable versions of the system.
Primary Cold War-era research in the US
The first American to publish on the microwave hearing effect was Allan H. Frey, in 1961. In his experiments, the subjects were discovered to be able to hear appropriately pulsed microwave radiation, from a distance of 100 meters from the transmitter. This was accompanied by side effects such as dizziness, headaches, and a pins and needles sensation.
Sharp and Grove developed 'receiverless' wireless voice transmission technologies for the Advanced Research Projects Agency at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, in 1973. In the above mentioned journal entry to The American Psychologist, Dr. Don Justesen reports that Sharp and Grove were readily able to hear, identify, and distinguish among the single-syllable words for digits between 1 and 10 . Justesen writes, "The sounds heard were not unlike those emitted by persons with an artificial voice box (Electrolarynx). Communication of more complex words and of sentences was not attempted because the averaged densities of energy required to transmit longer messages would approach the [still] current 10mW/cm² limit of safe exposure."
A 1998 patent describes a device that can scare off birds from wind turbines, aircraft, and other sensitive installations by way of microwave energy pulses. Using frequencies from 1 GHz to about 40 GHz, the warning system generates pulses of milliseconds duration, which are claimed to be sensed by the birds' auditory systems. It is believed this may cause them to veer away from the protected object.
Numerous individuals suffering from auditory hallucinations, delusional disorders or other mental illness have claimed that government agents use microwave signals to transmit sounds and thoughts into their heads as a form of electronic harassment, referring to the technology as "voice to skull" or "V2K". There are extensive online support networks and numerous websites maintained by people fearing mind control. Psychologist Dr. Alan Brucker has identified evidence of delusional disorders on many of these websites and other psychologists are divided over whether such sites negatively reinforce mental troubles or act as a form of group cognitive therapy.
- Photoacoustic effect
- Brain-computer interface
- Psychological manipulation
- Specific absorption rate - government standards for measurement of human radio frequency exposures
- Cosmic ray visual phenomena
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