As of 2005, Carnegie Corporation Ltd. (CCL) of Australia (50%) in joint venture with Astron of China (50%) held an exclusive prospecting license for the Batukunku, the Kartung, and the Sanyangmineral sands deposits in Brufut. In 2005, the joint venture completed a second-round trial dredge program at the deposit. Following the completion of this dredge program and of an environmental impact assessment study, the company submitted an application to convert its prospecting license to a mining lease. As of the end of 2005, CCL continued to wait for Government approval. As of 2005, total measured, indicated, and inferred resources at the Batukunku, the Kartung, and the Sanyang deposits were estimated to be 18.8 million metric tons (Mt) that contained approximately one Mt of heavy minerals at a cutoff grade of 1%. The heavy-mineral assemblage for these deposits was estimated to be about 71% ilmenite, 15% zircon, 3% rutile, and 11% other.