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The Mugello valley was settled by a Ligurian tribe known as the Magelli, whence the name. Then the region was occupied by the Etruscans who have left many archeological traces and who built the first road network of Mugello.
The subsequent Ancient Roman conquest and colonization of the Mugello region dates back to the 4th century BCE. It is not only testified not by several finds such as tombs, coins, walls but also by the toponomastic, e.g. names of places ending with the praedial suffix -ano (Latin -anus) or -ana: Cerliano, Figliano, Marcoiano, Galliano, Lucignano, etc.
The Mugello region was later acquired by the Republic of Florence. Several patrician families of the area built villas here, such as those of the Medici including Villa Medicea di Cafaggiolo and Villa Medicea del Trebbio.
Recently a dam was constructed across the Sieve river, forming the reservoir of Lake Bilancino in the Mugello valley.
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