Neotropical parrot

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Neotropical parrots
Blue-and-Yellow-Macaw.jpg
Blue-and-yellow macaw
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Psittaciformes
Superfamily: Psittacoidea
Family: Psittacidae
Subfamily: Arinae
Tribes

Arini
Androglossini

The Neotropical parrots or New World parrots comprise approximately 150 species in 32 genera found throughout South and Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean islands, and two species (one extinct) formerly inhabited North America. They are also present on a few Pacific islands like the Galapagos.[1] Among them are some of the most familiar and iconic parrots including the blue and gold macaw, sun conure and yellow-headed amazon.

The parrots of the New World have been known to Europeans since Columbus remarked upon them in his journal in 1492. Systematic descriptions of the birds were first available in German naturalist Georg Marcgraf's Historia Naturalis Brasiliae published in 1648, and English naturalist Mark Catesby's two volume Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands published in London in 1731 and 1743.

Several species and one genus have become extinct in recent centuries. A second genus is extinct in the wild. Over a third of the extant species are classified as threatened by the IUCN. A few of these are in imminent danger of extinction with fewer than 500 individuals in the wild or in captivity: glaucous macaw, Spix's macaw, blue-throated macaw, Puerto Rican parrot, indigo-winged parrot. The chief reasons for decline in parrot populations are habitat loss through deforestation by clear-cutting, burning and flooding by construction of dams, capture for the pet trade, and introduction of non-native predators. In a few cases, hunting contributes. Local and global climate change is also affecting parrot populations.

The New World parrots are monophyletic, and have been geographically isolated for at least 30-55 mya by molecular dating methods. Though fairly few fossils of modern parrots are known, most of these are from tribe Arini of macaws and parakeets; the oldest are from 16 mya. They attest that modern genera were mostly distinct by the Pleistocene, a few million years ago.

Neotropical parrots comprise at least two monophyletic clades, one of primarily long-tailed species such as the macaws, conures and allies, and the other of primarily short-tailed parrots such as amazons and allies (Miyaki, et al. 1998; Tavares et al. 2006; Wright et al. 2008).

A new species, the bald parrot or orange-headed parrot was discovered as recently as 2002.

Taxonomy[edit]

Neotropical parrots belong to the subfamily Arinae[2] which along with the African or Old World parrots comprise the family Psittacidae, one of three families of true parrots. The taxonomy of the Neotropical parrots is not yet fully resolved, but the following subdivision is supported by solid studies.[3][4][5][6][7][8]

Schodde, et al.[9] recognize a division of the remaining genera into several distinct clades, indicating possible previously undefined tribes:

  • clade - proposed tribe Forpini
  • clade including Arini

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Forshaw,, J. (1989). Parrots of the world, third ed. Melbourne, Australia: Landsdowne Editions,. 
  2. ^ http://jboyd.net/Taxo/List12.html#psittaciformes
  3. ^ Leo Joseph, Alicia Toon, Erin E. Schirtzinger, Timothy F. Wright & Richard Schodde. (2012) A revised nomenclature and classification for family-group taxa of parrots (Psittaciformes). Zootaxa 3205: 26–40
  4. ^ Manuel Schweizer, Ole Seehausen and Stefan T. Hertwig (2011). "Macroevolutionary patterns in the diversification of parrots: effects of climate change, geological events and key innovations". Journal of Biogeography 38: 2176–2194. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02555.x. 
  5. ^ Leo Joseph, Alicia Toon, Erin E. Schirtzinger, Timothy F. Wright (2011). "Molecular systematics of two enigmatic genera Psittacella and Pezoporus illuminate the ecological radiation of Australo-Papuan parrots (Aves: Psittaciformes)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 59 (3): 675–684. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.03.017. PMID 21453777. 
  6. ^ Wright, T.F.; Schirtzinger E. E., Matsumoto T., Eberhard J. R., Graves G. R., Sanchez J. J., Capelli S., Muller H., Scharpegge J., Chambers G. K. & Fleischer R. C. (2008). "A Multilocus Molecular Phylogeny of the Parrots (Psittaciformes): Support for a Gondwanan Origin during the Cretaceous". Mol Biol Evol 25 (10): 2141–2156. doi:10.1093/molbev/msn160. PMC 2727385. PMID 18653733. 
  7. ^ Schweizer, M.; Seehausen O, Güntert M and Hertwig ST (2009). "The evolutionary diversification of parrots supports a taxon pulse model with multiple trans-oceanic dispersal events and local radiations". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. online (3): 984–94. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.08.021. PMID 19699808. 
  8. ^ de Kloet, RS; de Kloet SR (2005). "The evolution of the spindlin gene in birds: Sequence analysis of an intron of the spindlin W and Z gene reveals four major divisions of the Psittaciformes". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36 (3): 706–721. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.03.013. PMID 16099384. 
  9. ^ Schodde, et.al, Richard (2013). "Correspondence: Higher classification of New World parrots (Psittaciformes; Arinae), with diagnoses of tribes". Zootaxa 3691 (5): 591–596. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3691.5.5.