Ó Tuathail, or O'Tuathail, is an Irish surname commonly found in Wicklow and Kildare. The family, also known as O'Toole, (an anglicization of the Irish Ó Tuathail), was one of the leading families of the province of Leinster. They are descended from Tuathal Mac Augaire, King of Leinster (died 958), who belonged to the Uí Dúnlainge dynasty. The first to use the surname in true hereditary fashion appears to have been his grandson Doncaon, slain at Leighlin in 1014.
Although the original territory of the Ó Tuathail family lay in Co Kildare, in the 12th century they were displaced by the invading Normans and migrated into the adjoining county of Wicklow, where the area they controlled was roughly identical to the old diocese of Glendalough, with the centre of their power in the region around the Glen of Imaal. Despite the proximity of Dublin, the centre of English rule in Ireland, the Ó Tuathail's maintained a fierce independence and, were a source of great fear to the inhabitants of Dublin and the Pale for almost four centuries. The descendants of the sept took the name O'Toole, although the name is now rare without the prefix 'O'. The tradition of surnames in Ireland developed spontaneously, as the population increased and the former practice, first of single names and then of ephemeral patronymics or agnomina of the nickname type proved insufficiently definitive. At first the surname was formed by prefixing 'Mac' to the father's Christian name or 'Ó 'to that of a grandfather or earlier ancestor.
Notable people from the O'Tuathail (O'Toole) Clan
- Lorcán Ua Tuathail, also known as Saint Laurence O'Toole, was born at Castledermot, Kildare, Ireland, in 1128, and died at Eu, Normandy, France, on 14 November 1180. He was Archbishop of Glendalough and in 1171, while he was Archbishop of Dublin he took up arms against the Anglo Norman invaders. He was canonized in 1225 by Pope Honorius III.
- Mór Ní Tuathail (c. 1114–1191) was a Queen-consort of Leinster as the first wife of King Diarmait Mac Murchada. Mór was the mother of Aoife of Leinster, the wife of Richard de Clare, Earl of Pembroke, known to history as Strongbow.
- Colonel John O'Toole of the Irish Brigade in France was created a count and is the ancestor of the present Count O'Toole of Limoges.
- Sergeant O'Toole of the 9th Queen's Royal Lancers of the British Army was awarded a Victoria Cross for conspicuous bravery in the Zulu War on 3 July 1879.
- John Lawrence Toole (1830–1906) the comedian, born in London. He went to the City of London School, and in 1853 gave up his desk in a wine merchants to become an actor. He first played at Ipswich and in London at the St. James's Theatre in 1854. In 1874-75 he played in the United States, and in 1890 in Australia. In 1879 he became lessee of the Folly Theatre, which he enlarged, changing the name to 'Toole's Theatre'.
- Peter Seamus O'Toole (born 2 August 1932) is a noted Irish stage and screen actor. He has received three Golden Globes, an Emmy Award and eight Oscar nominations. He was awarded an honorary Oscar for his body of work in 2003. He starred in such films as Lawrence of Arabia, The Lion in Winter, and Goodbye, Mr. Chips.
- Gerard Toal (Irish: Gearóid Ó Tuathail) (born 1962) is a Professor of Government and International Affairs in Washington DC
The following is a list of names that are related to O'Tuathail. This is not a complete list; there may be other names.