Okeh Records

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"Okeh" redirects here. For the expression, see Okay.
Okeh Records
Okehlogo.jpg
Parent company Sony Music Entertainment
Founded 1916
Founder Otto Heinemann
Distributor(s) Sony Masterworks
Legacy Recordings (re-issues)
Genre Various (1916–1953)
Rhythm & blues (1953–1970)
New-age blues (1994–2000)
Jazz (current)
Country of origin United States
Official website http://www.okeh-records.com
A lateral recording of Billy Murray, from 1919

Okeh Records (rendered by Sony Music as OKeh) began as the Otto Heinemann Phonograph Corp., a supplier of phonographs based in the United States of America in 1916,[1] branching out into phonograph records in 1918.[2] From 1926 on, it was a subsidiary of Columbia Records.

History[edit]

Okeh (pronounced 'okay') was founded by Otto K. E. Heinemann (1877–1965), a German-American manager for the U.S. branch of German-owned Odeon Records. As World War I raged in Europe, Heinemann thought it best to have an American-based company. He incorporated the Otto Heinemann Phonograph Corporation in 1916, set up his own recording studio and gramophone record pressing plant in New York City, and introduced the company's line of records for public sale in September 1918. Heinemann formed the name of the record label "Okeh", from his initials; early disc labels rendered the name as OkeH. The first discs were vertical cut. In 1919 Okeh switched to the lateral cut method of sound recording, more usual for disc records. That same year the name of the label's owning company was changed to the "General Phonograph Corporation" and the name on the label was changed to "OKeh". The common 10-inch discs retailed for 75 cents each, the 12-inch discs for $1.25. The company's musical director was Fred Hager, who also appeared under the pseudonym of "Milo Rega" (Hager's middle name and his surname reversed).

Okeh began by issuing popular songs, dance numbers, and vaudeville skits similar to the fare of other labels, but Heineman also wished to experiment with music for audiences neglected by the larger record companies. Okeh produced lines of recordings in German, Czech, Polish, Swedish, and Yiddish for the USA's immigrant communities. Some were pressed from masters leased from European labels, others were recorded by Okeh in New York.

In 1920, Ralph Peer's recordings by African-American blues singer Mamie Smith were a surprise smash hit for Okeh. The company perceived the significant, little-tapped market for blues and jazz by African American artists. In 1922, Okeh hired Clarence Williams to act as director of "Race" (African American) recordings for Okeh's New York studios, in addition to making recordings under his own name. Okeh then opened a recording studio in Chicago, Illinois, the center of jazz in the 1920s, where Richard M. Jones served as "Race" recordings director. Many classic jazz performances by the likes of King Oliver, Lucille Bogan, Sidney Bechet, Hattie McDaniel, Louis Armstrong, and Duke Ellington were recorded by Okeh. As part of the Carl Lindstrom Company, Okeh recordings were distributed by other Lindstrom labels including Parlophone in the United Kingdom.

Based on the quantity of records recorded, Okeh's big stars were Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Lonnie Johnson, Joe Venuti and Eddie Lang, Victoria Spivey, Clarence Williams, Miff Mole, Sophie Tucker, and Seger Ellis. Both King Oliver and Bennie Moten recorded for Okeh before moving on to other labels. The 8000 "Race" series is a highly prized series, partly because Okeh recorded so many blues and jazz artists who made only a very few records. (The same can be said for Okeh's 45000 Country/Hillbilly series.)

On November 1926, Okeh was sold to Columbia Records. Columbia and its subsequent parent companies (ARC, CBS and Sony Music) have controlled Okeh ever since.[3]

Race records[edit]

The original Mamie Smith recording was in 1920, of “Crazy Blues". General Phonograph Corp, Okeh's manufacturer, used Smith’s success as the press to cultivate the new market. Portraits of Smith and lists of her records were used as the advertisements in newspapers including the Chicago Defender, the Atlanta Independent, New York Colored News, and others popular with the African-American community (even though Smith's records were part of Okeh's regular 4000 series). Okeh had further prominence in the demographic, as African-American artists such as Sara Martin, Eva Taylor, Shelton Brooks, Esther Bigeou, and Handy’s Orchestra recorded exclusively for the label. Okeh started a special 8000 series devoted exclusively to "Race" artists. The success of this series led Okeh to start recording where the music was actually being performed, known as “remote” or “location” recording.[4]

The 8000 series, which began in 1921, lasted until late 1934, the final number being 8966.

Location recording[edit]

1927 Okeh 78, 40916, "In a Mist".

Okeh Records pioneered the practice of "location recording" in 1922. Starting in 1924, Okeh also sent mobile recording trucks to tour other parts of the country to record performers not heard in New York or Chicago. Regular return trips were made once or twice a year to New Orleans, Louisiana, Atlanta, Georgia, San Antonio, Texas, St. Louis, Missouri, Kansas City, Missouri, and Detroit, Michigan, recording a wealth of jazz and early country music artists.

In 1926, Okeh switched to the electric microphone system of audio recording. On November 11 of that year, controlling interest in Okeh was purchased by Columbia Records. Beside the legendary Okeh Race 8000 Series (which featured some of the great blues and black jazz of the era), Okeh recorded a series of legendary "chamber" hot jazz sessions with Joe Venuti and Eddie Lang, Frank Trumbauer's studio groups featuring Bix Beiderbecke, Miff Mole's studio groups, among others. These are considered among the best of the 1920s hot small-group white jazz sessions.

Later years[edit]

Okeh releases grew infrequent after 1932, although the label continued into 1935. Columbia again revived it in 1940, introducing the script logo design still in use today on a demonstration record announcing the label's revival,[5] after they lost the rights to the Vocalion name (by dropping the Brunswick label). Okeh continued until 1946, when it was revived once again in 1951[6] and used sporadically. In 1953, Okeh's pop music acts were transferred to the newly formed Epic Records making Okeh an exclusive rhythm and blues label.[7] In 1963, Carl Davis became Okeh's A&R manager and boosted Okeh's fortunes for a couple of years.[8] Epic Records took over management of Okeh in 1965. Among the artists during Okeh's "pop" phase of the 50s and 60s were Johnnie Ray and Little Joe & the Thrillers.

With soul music coming to the forefront in the 60s, Okeh signed Major Lance, who gave the label two big successes with "The Monkey Time" and "Um, Um, Um, Um, Um, Um". Fifties rocker Larry Williams found a musical home for a period of time in the 60s, recording and producing funky soul with band that included Johnny "Guitar" Watson. He was paired with Little Richard who had been lured back into secular music. He produced two Little Richard albums for Okeh Records in 1966 and 1967, which returned Little Richard to the Billboard album chart for the first time in ten years and spawned the hit single "Poor Dog".[9] He also acted as the music director for Little Richard's live performances at the Okeh Club in Los Angeles. Bookings for Little Richard during this period skyrocketed.[9] Williams also recorded and released material of his own and with Watson, with some moderate chart success. This period may have garnered few hits but produced some of Williams' best and most original work.

Much of the success of Okeh in the 1960s was dependent on producer Carl Davis and songwriter Curtis Mayfield. After they left the label (due to disputes with Epic/Okeh head Len Levy), Okeh gradually slipped in sales, and was finally deactivated discreetly by CBS Records in 1970. (Davis moved on to Brunswick Records and made it a leading soul music label.)

New era[edit]

In 1994, Sony Music reactivated the Okeh label (under distribution by Epic Records) as a new-age blues label. Okeh's first new signings included G. Love & Special Sauce, Keb' Mo, Popa Chubby, and Little Axe. Throughout the first year, in celebration of the relaunch, singles for G. Love, Popa Chubby and Keb' Mo were released on 10-inch vinyl. By 2000, the Okeh label was again retired, and G. Love & Special Sauce was moved to Epic.

As a jazz label[edit]

In January 2013, Sony Music reactivated the Okeh label as Sony's primary jazz imprint under Sony Masterworks and the imprint is part of Sony Masterworks in the U.S., Sony Classical's domestic branch, focusing on both new and established artists who embody "global expressions in jazz".[10] Its jazz artists on the reactivated imprint include Bill Frisell, Craig Handy, David Sanborn, Bob James, John Medeski, Somi and others.[11]

Current ownership[edit]

Sony Music Entertainment owns the global rights to the Okeh Records catalogue through Epic Records and Sony's Legacy Recordings reissue subsidiary. Parlophone parent EMI's rights to the Okeh catalogue in the UK expired in 1968 at which point Sony Music's predecessor company CBS Records took over distribution.[12]

Popular culture[edit]

  • The OKeh Laughing Record, which featured a man and woman laughing uncontrollably, was featured extensively in the Walter Lantz Productions cartoon short Sh-h-h-h-h, the last short directed by Tex Avery. The record was recorded in Germany by Beka Records in 1923, and would be issued in the UK as The Parlophone Laughing Record.[13]
  • Jean Shepherd also used the record many times as background music on his radio show on WOR.
  • The Okeh logo has been used on clothing at retailer Forever 21.[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Musicology 2101: A Quick Start Guide to Music Biz History - L. A. Jackson - Google Books". Books.google.com. Retrieved 2014-08-09. 
  2. ^ "Encyclopedia of Recorded Sound - Google Books". Books.google.com. 2004-08-21. Retrieved 2014-08-09. 
  3. ^ "Discography of OKeh Records, 1918-1934 - Ross Laird, Brian A. L. Rust, Brian Rust - Google Books". Books.google.com. Retrieved 2014-08-09. 
  4. ^ Laird, Ross; Brian Rust (2004-07-30). Discography or OKeh Records, 1918–1934. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishing. ISBN 978-0-313-31142-0. 
  5. ^ "1940 OKEH LABEL INTRODUCTORY DEALER PROMO RECORD". YouTube. 2013-02-04. Retrieved 2014-08-09. 
  6. ^ "Great God A'Mighty! The Dixie Hummingbirds : Celebrating the Rise of Soul ... - Jerry Zolten Assistant Professor of Communication Arts and Sciences and American Studies Penn State University - Google Books". Books.google.com. 2002-12-13. Retrieved 2014-08-09. 
  7. ^ Billboard - Google Books. Books.google.com. 1953-09-19. Retrieved 2013-03-11. 
  8. ^ Billboard - Google Books. Books.google.com. 1963-04-13. Retrieved 2013-03-11. 
  9. ^ a b White (2003), p. 268.
  10. ^ "Sony Classical Relaunching OKeh Records Jazz Imprint". Billboard News (Billboard Magazine). 11 January 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2013. 
  11. ^ "Sony Classical Relaunching OKeh Records Jazz Imprint". Billboard. 2013-01-11. Retrieved 2014-08-09. 
  12. ^ Billboard - Google Books. Books.google.com. 1968-05-11. Retrieved 2013-03-11. 
  13. ^ "Okeh Laughing Record : Okeh : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". Archive.org. Retrieved 2013-03-11. 
  14. ^ [1][dead link]

External links[edit]