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Pact of Steel

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Pact of Steel
Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy
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Galeazzo Ciano, Adolf Hitler and Joachim Von Ribbentrop at the signing of the Pact of Steel in the Reichskanzlei in Berlin
Type Military-political
Signed 22 May 1939
Location Berlin, Germany
Expiration 1949 (effectively in 1943)
Signatories Germany Germany
Italy Italy
Parties Nazi Party
National Fascist Party
Languages German, Italian

The Pact of Steel (German: Stahlpakt, Italian: Patto d'Acciaio), known formally as the Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy, was a military and political alliance between the Kingdom of Italy and Germany.

The pact was initially drafted as a tripartite military alliance between Japan, Italy and Germany. While Japan wanted the focus of the pact to be aimed at the Soviet Union, Italy and Germany wanted it aimed at Britain and France. Due to this disagreement, the pact was signed without Japan and became an agreement between Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, signed on 22 May 1939 by foreign ministers Galeazzo Ciano of Italy and Joachim von Ribbentrop of Germany.

The pact consisted of two parts. The first section was an open declaration of continuing trust and cooperation between Germany and Italy while the second, a "Secret Supplementary Protocol", encouraged a union of policies concerning the military and economy. Although intended to last 10 years, it was effectively cancelled in 1943 with removal of Italy's fascist government.

It was Italian leader Benito Mussolini who dubbed the agreement the "Pact of Steel", after being told that the original name, "Pact of Blood", would most likely be poorly received in Italy.

Background[edit]

Germany and Italy fought against each other in World War I.[1] Popularity and support for extremist political parties, such as the Nazis of Adolf Hitler and the Fascists of Benito Mussolini, exploded after the Great Depression severely hampered the economy of both countries.[1]

In 1922, Mussolini secured his position as Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Italy.[2] His first actions made him immensely popular; massive programs of public works provided employment and transformed Italy's infrastructure.[3] Italy's armed forces were built up, including an advanced modern air force.[1] In the Mediterranean Mussolini launched a powerful navy, bigger than the combined might of the British and French Mediterranean fleets.[1]

Like Mussolini, Hitler's first acts also made him and his Nazi Party extremely popular.[1] When he was appointed Chancellor in 1933, Hitler initiated a huge wave of public works and secret rearmament which swiftly eliminated the unemployment crisis troubling Germany.[4] Fascism and Nazism shared similar principles and Hitler and Mussolini met on several state and private occasions in the 1930s.[5][a]

Japan[edit]

In 1931, Japanese forces invaded the region of Manchuria because of its rich grain fields and reserves of raw minerals, which the Empire desperately need to ensure the health of country's economy and provide for the extremely fast-growing population.[1] This, however, provoked a diplomatic clash with the Soviet Union, which bordered Manchuria.[1] To combat this Soviet threat, the Japanese signed a Pact with Germany in 1936.[1] The aim of the pact was to guard against any attack from Soviet Russia were it to move on China.[1]

Japan elected to focus on anti-Soviet alliances instead of anti-Western alliances like Italy and Germany.[6] Germany, however, feared that an anti-USSR alliance would create the possibility of a two-front war before they could conquer Western Europe.[6] So when Japan was invited to sign the Pact of Steel, they declined.[6]

Clauses[edit]

Officially, the Pact of Steel obliged Germany and Italy to aid the other country militarily, economically or otherwise in the event of war, and to collaborate in wartime production.[7] The Pact ensured that neither country was able to make peace without the agreement of the other.[8] The agreement was based on the assumption that a war would not occur within three years.[8] When Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939 and war broke out on 3 September, Italy was not yet prepared for conflict and had difficulty meeting its obligations.[9] Consequently, Italy did not enter World War II until June 1940, with a delayed invasion of Southern France.[10]

Article I
The Contracting Parties will remain in permanent contact with each other in order to come to an understanding of all common interests or the European situation as a whole.[8]
Article II
In the event that the common interests of the Contracting Parties be jeopardized through international happenings of any kind, they will immediately enter into consultation regarding the necessary measures to preserve these interests. Should the security or other vital interests of one of the Contracting Parties be threatened from outside, the other Contracting Party will afford the threatened Party its full political and diplomatic support in order to remove this threat.[8]
Article III
If it should happen, against the wishes and hopes of the Contracting Parties, that one of them becomes involved in military complications with another tower or other Powers, the other Contracting Party will immediately step to its side as an ally and will support it with all its military might on land, at sea and in the air.[8]
Article IV
In order to ensure, in any given case, the rapid implementation of the alliance obligations of Article III, the Governments of the two Contracting Parties will further intensify their cooperation in the military sphere and the sphere of war economy. Similarly the two Governments will keep each other regularly informed of other measures necessary for the practical implementation of this Pact. The two Governments will create standing commissions, under the direction of the Foreign Ministers, for the purposes indicated in Article I and II.[8]
Article V
The Contracting Parties already at this point bind themselves, in the event of a jointly waged war, to conclude any armistice or peace only in full agreement with each other.[8]
Article VI
The two Contracting Parties are aware of the importance of their joint relations to the Powers which are friendly to them. They are determined to maintain these relations in future and to promote the adequate development of the common interests which bind them to these Powers.[8]
Article VII
This Pact comes into force immediately upon its signing. The two Contracting Parties are agreed upon fixing the first period of its validity at 10 years. In good time before the elapse of this period they will come to an agreement regarding the extension of the validity of the Pact.[8]

Secret Supplementary Protocols[edit]

The Secret Supplementary Protocols of the Pact of Steel, which were split into two sections, were not made public at the time of the signing of the Pact.[11]

The first section urged the countries to quicken their joint military and economic cooperation whilst the second section committed the two countries to cooperate in "matters of press, the news service and the propaganda" to promote the power and image of the Rome-Berlin Axis.[11] To aid in this, each country was to assign "one or several specialists" of their country in the capital city of the other for close liaisons with the Foreign Minister of that country.[11]

Name change[edit]

After being told the original name, "Pact of Blood", would likely be poorly received in Italy, Mussolini proposed the name "Pact of Steel", which was ultimately chosen.[12]

Dissolution[edit]

According to Article VII, the pact was to last 10 years, but this was not to be.[8] In 1942, the Axis forces in North Africa, led by Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, was decisively defeated by the British at the Second Battle of El Alamein.[13] A year later, the Allies opened up a new front by invading Sicily.[13] In the aftermath of this, Mussolini was overthrown in a popular uprising. The new Italian government, under Field Marshal Pietro Badoglio, signed an armistice with the Allies in September and became a co-belligerent, thus effective ending Italy's involvement in the pact.[13]

Although a puppet government under Mussolini was established in Northern Italy by Nazi Germany, the Italian Social Republic, Italy continued as a member of the pact in name only.[13]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Hitler greatly admired Mussolini and saw much of his career as an inspiration in the 1920s. Mussolini, however, had a much lower opinion on Hitler.[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i World Media Rights 2009.
  2. ^ Knight 2013, p. 22.
  3. ^ Knight 2013, pp. 68–69.
  4. ^ Shirer 1960, pp. 258–262.
  5. ^ Corvaja 2013, p. 13.
  6. ^ a b c Maltarich 2005, p. 75.
  7. ^ Hiden 2014, pp. 187–188.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Office of Counsel 2015.
  9. ^ Belco 2010, p. 37.
  10. ^ Knox 2002, p. 181.
  11. ^ a b c Historical Resources 2015.
  12. ^ Nicholls 2000, p. 195.
  13. ^ a b c d World Media Rights 2009a.
  14. ^ Corvaja 2013, pp. 2–11.

Sources[edit]

Printed[edit]

  • Belco, Victoria (2010). War, Massacre, and Recovery in Central Italy, 1943–1948. University of Toronto. ISBN 978-0-8020-9314-1. 
  • Corvaja, Santi (2013). Hitler & Mussolini: The Secret Meetings. Enigma Books. ISBN 978-0982491164. 
  • Hiden, John (2014). Germany and Europe 1919–1939. Routledge Publishing. ISBN 978-1-317-89627-2. 
  • Knight, Patricia (2013). Mussolini and Fascism. Routledge. ISBN 978-1136477508. 
  • Knox, MacGregor (2002). Hitler's Italian Allies: Royal Armed Forces, Fascist Regime, and the War of 1940–1943. Cambridge University. ISBN 978-1-139-43203-0. 
  • Maltarich, William (2005). Samurai and Supermen: National Socialist Views of Japan. Peter Lang Publishing. ISBN 978-3-03-910303-4. 
  • Nicholls, David (2000). Adolf Hitler: A Biographical Companion. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-87436-965-6. 
  • Shirer, William (1960). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-62420-0. 

Online[edit]

Media[edit]