Pain tolerance

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Pain tolerance is the maximum level of pain that a person is able to tolerate.[1] Pain tolerance is distinct from pain threshold (the point at which pain begins to be felt).[2]

Factors affecting pain tolerance[edit]

Clinical studies by the journal of Psychosomatic Medicine found that "men had higher pain thresholds and tolerances and lower pain ratings than women" when exposed to cold pressor pain.[3] The study asked participants to submerge their hands in ice water (the cold pressor pain procedure) and told members of the experimental group (as opposed to the control group) that they would be compensated financially for keeping their hand submerged.[4] Suggested explanations for this difference include that "men are more motivated to tolerate and suppress expressions of pain because of the masculine sex role, whereas the feminine sex role encourages pain expression and produces lower motivation to tolerate pain among women."[3]

A similar study published in the same journal focused on the effects of having individuals perform the ice water procedure while accompanied by another participant. Their results revealed that "Participants in the active support and passive support conditions reported less pain than participants in the alone and interaction conditions, regardless of whether they were paired with a friend or stranger. These data suggest that the presence of an individual who provides passive or active support reduces experimental pain."[5]

Other factors that affect pain tolerance are association and disassociation. These two cognitive strategies have been found to increase pain tolerance. [6]

Effect of exposure to pain[edit]

It is widely believed that regular exposure to painful stimuli will increase pain tolerance – i.e. increase the ability of the individual to handle pain by becoming more conditioned to it. However, in some cases there is evidence to support the theory that – the greater exposure to pain will result in more painful future exposures. Repeated exposure bombards pain synapses with repetitive input, increasing their responsiveness to later stimuli, through a process similar to learning. Therefore, although the individual may learn cognitive methods of coping with pain, these methods may not be sufficient to cope with the boosted response to future painful stimuli.[7] "An intense barrage of painful stimuli potentiates the cells responsive to pain so that they respond more vigorously to minor stimulation in the future."[8]

Because of this, trauma victims (or patients in pain) are given painkillers (such as morphine) as soon as possible – to prevent pain sensitization.[7]

Kalat suggests that morphine should be taken before surgery;[7] "People who begin taking morphine before surgery need less of it afterward."[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "definition of Pain tolerance in the Medical dictionary". Mosby's Dental Dictionary, 2nd edition. Elsevier, Inc. 2008. Retrieved 6 October 2010. 
  2. ^ "IASP definition, full entry". Retrieved 27 September 2010
  3. ^ a b Lowery, D.; Fillingim, R. B.; Wright, R. A. (2003). "Sex Differences and Incentive Effects on Perceptual and Cardiovascular Responses to Cold Pressor Pain". Psychosomatic Medicine 65 (2): 284–291. doi:10.1097/01.PSY.0000033127.11561.78. PMID 12651996.  edit
  4. ^ Staff (9 Apr 2003). "Higher pain tolerance in males can't be bought". Eurekalert. Retrieved 2008-12-02. 
  5. ^ Brown, J. L.; Sheffield, D.; Leary, M. R.; Robinson, M. E. (2003). "Social Support and Experimental Pain". Psychosomatic Medicine 65 (2): 276–283. doi:10.1097/01.PSY.0000030388.62434.46. PMID 12651995.  edit
  6. ^ Lorette Pen & Craig Fisher "Athletes and Pain Tolerance", Sports Medicine, Volume 18, Issue 5, November 1994, p. 319-329
  7. ^ a b c James W. Kalat Biological Psychology, 9th edition, 2007, p. 212.
  8. ^ Malmberg, A. B.; Chen, C.; Tonegawa, S.; Basbaum, A. I. (1997). "Preserved Acute Pain and Reduced Neuropathic Pain in Mice Lacking PKC". Science 278 (5336): 279–283. doi:10.1126/science.278.5336.279. PMID 9323205.  edit
  9. ^ Keefe, F. J.; France, C. R. (1999). "Pain: Biopsychosocial Mechanisms and Management". Current Directions in Psychological Science 8 (5): 137. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.00032.  edit