Papal election, 1143
Coat of arms during the vacancy of the Holy See
|Dates and location|
|26 September 1143
Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, Papal States
|Dean||Corrado Demetri della Suburra|
|Guido di Castello
(Name taken: Celestine II)
Election of Celestine II
Pope Innocent II died on 24 September 1143, at Rome. During the first eight years of his pontificate he faced the schism with Antipope Anacletus II (1130–1138), which finally ended in May 1138 with abdication and submission of Anacletus’ successor Antipope Victor IV (1138). The Second Lateran Council in April 1139 deposed from the ecclesiastical offices all former adherents of the Anacletus. However, despite the triumph over the antipope, the last years of Innocent' pontificate were not successful - papal armies were defeated by King Roger II of Sicily, who had received the crown from Anacletus II and demanded the recognition of his title from Innocent II. After the lost battle of Galluccio on July 22, 1139 the pope was taken prisoner by Roger and was forced to confirm all privileges given to the king by Anacletus II. Soon afterwards new serious problem arose at the city of Rome. In 1143, shortly before Innocent's death, the Roman people created a municipal commune which rejected the secular rule of the Papacy in the Eternal City. The election of Innocent’ successor took place in the shadow of this municipal revolution.
The cardinals present at Rome assembled in the Lateran Basilica and on 26 September 1143 elected Cardinal Guido del Castello of S. Marco, who had previously served as legate of Innocent II before king Roger in 1137, and was the first cardinal known to hold the title of magister. He took the name Celestine II and was consecrated on the same day.
There were probably 30 cardinals in the Sacred College of Cardinals in September 1143. Basing on the examination of the subscribtions of the papal bulls in 1143 and the available data about the external missions of the cardinals it is possible to establish that no more than 23 cardinals participated in the election:
|Corrado Demetri della Suburra||Bishop of Sabina||1113/14||Paschalis II||Dean of the College of Cardinals; future Pope Anastasius IV (1153—1154)|
|Alberic de Beauvais, O.S.B.Cluny||Bishop of Ostia||3 April 1138||Innocent II|
|Étienne de Châlons, O.Cist.||Bishop of Palestrina||21 February 1141||Innocent II|
|Imar, O.S.B.Cluny||Bishop of Tusculum||13 March 1142||Innocent II|
|Pietro||Bishop of Albano||17 September 1143||Innocent II|
|Gerardo Caccianemici, Can.Reg.||Priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme||9 March 1123||Callixtus II||Protopriest; Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church; future Pope Lucius II (1144—1145)|
|Guido del Castello||Priest of S. Marco||1128/29||Honorius II||Elected Pope Celestine II|
|Guido Florentinus||Priest of S. Crisogono||1139||Innocent II|
|Rainiero||Priest of S. Prisca||22 December 1139||Innocent II|
|Gregorio della Suburra||Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere||1 March 1140||Innocent II|
|Tommaso||Priest of S. Vitale||1 March 1140||Innocent II|
|Pietro||Priest of S. Pudenziana||20 September 1140||Innocent II||Archpriest of the Vatican Basilica|
|Ubaldo||Priest of SS. Giovanni e Paolo||19 December 1141||Innocent II|
|Gregorio Tarquini||Deacon of SS. Sergio e Bacco||9 March 1123||Callixtus II||Protodeacon|
|Odone Bonecase||Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro||4 March 1132||Innocent II|
|Ubaldo||Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata||21 December 1134||Innocent II|
|Gerardo||Deacon of S. Maria in Domnica||27 May 1138||Innocent II|
|Ottaviano de Monticelli||Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere||25 February 1138||Innocent II||Future Antipope Victor IV (1159–1164)|
|Pietro||Deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro||21 February 1141||Innocent II|
|Pietro||Deacon of S. Maria in Portico||19 September 1141||Innocent II|
|Gregorio||Deacon of the Holy Roman Church||19 December 1141||Innocent II|
|Niccolo||Deacon of the Holy Roman Church||13 March 1142||Innocent II|
|Theodwin, O.S.B.||Bishop of Santa Rufina||ca. 1133||Innocent II||Papal legate in Germany|
|Goizo||Priest of S. Cecilia||22 December 1139||Innocent II||Papal legate in Lombardy|
|Rainaldo di Collemezzo, O.S.B.Cas.||Priest of SS. Marcellino e Pietro||ca. 1139–1141||Innocent II||Abbot of Montecassino (external cardinal)|
|Ubaldo Allucingoli||Priest of S. Prassede||16 December 1138||Innocent II||Papal legate in Lombardy; future Pope Lucius III (1181–1185)|
|Guido Pisano||Deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano||4 March 1132||Innocent II||Papal legate in Spain|
|Adenulf, O.S.B.||Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin||16 December 1132||Innocent II||Abbot of Farfa (external cardinal)|
|Guido de Castro Ficeclo||Deacon of the Holy Roman Church||1139||Innocent II||Papal legate in Bohemia and Moravia|
|Gilberto||Deacon of S. Adriano||13 March 1142||Innocent II||Papal legate in Umbria|
- See Robinson, p. 384-387
- Robinson, pp. 78 and 453
- Cf. Zenker, p. 83-84
- Robinson, p. 220-221
- Robinson, p. 525; Jaffé, II, p. 1.
- Reconstruction is based on Brixius, p. 22 note 2 (number of 34 given by Brixius is apparently a scribal error), but with the following corrections: bishop Rodolfo of Orte, listed by Brixius (p. 46 no. 46), was not a cardinal at that time, see Zenker, pp. 52–53. Additionally, Brixius indicates that also Bernardo da Pisa, future Pope Eugene III, belonged to the College of Cardinals; but see M. Horn: Studien zur Geschichte Papst Eugens III.(1145-1153), Peter Lang Verlag 1992, pp. 42–45.
- Jaffé, I, pp. 840–841 and II, p. 1
- Zenker, pp. 28 and 263; he did not subscribe any papal bulls between 18 May 1140 and 26 November 1143 (Jaffé, I, p. 840 and II, p. 1).
- He is attested as legate between August 1143 and December 1143 (Paul Kehr, Italia Pontificia, Berlin 1906–1975, vol. VI/1, pp. XXVI–XXVII and vol. VII/1, p. XVIII); he did not subscribe any papal bulls between 14 May 1143 and 28 December 1143 (Jaffé, I, p. 840, and II, p. 1)
- Ganzer, pp. 94–97; Ganzer postdated his creation to 1145, see G. Loud, The Latin Church in Norman Italy, Cambridge University Press, 2007, p. 158 note 87
- Zenker, p. 23; he did not subscribe any papal bulls between 26 April 1143 and 1 December 1143 (Jaffé, I, p. 840, and II, p. 1)
- Zenker, p. 147; he did not subscribe any papal bulls between 30 September 1142 and 17 February 1144 (Jaffé, I, p. 840, and II, p. 1)
- Ganzer, pp. 81–83
- Luchesius Spätling, Kardinal Guido und seine Legation in Böhmen-Mären, in: Mitteilungen des Instituts für österreichische Geschichtsforschung, Universitäts Wien Institut für Geschichtsforschung und Archivwissenschaft in Wien, 1958, pp. 308–330; Zenker, p. 189; Brixius, pp. 89–90.
- Paul Kehr, Italia Pontificia, Berlin 1906–1975, vol. IV, p. 100 no. 5.
- Ganzer, Klaus (1963). Die Entwicklung des auswärtigen Kardinalats im hohen Mittelalter. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Kardinalkollegiums vom 11.bis 13. Jahrhundert. Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom (in German). Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.
- Robinson, Ian Stuart (1990). The Papacy 1073–1198. Continuity and Innovation. Cambridge Medieval Textbooks. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-31922-6.
- Jaffé, Phillipp (1885–1888). Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita Ecclesia ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII, vol. I–II (in Latin). Leipzig.
- Kehr, Paul Fridolin (1906–1975). Regesta pontificum Romanorum. Italia Pontificia. Vol. I–X (in Latin). SUL Books in the Public Domain.
- Zenker, Barbara (1964). Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130 bis 1159 (in German). Würzburg.
- Brixius, Johannes Matthias (1912). Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181 (in German). Berlin: R. Trenkel.