Peromyscus maniculatus

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Peromyscus maniculatus
DiGangi-Deermouse.jpg
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Rodentia
Family: Cricetidae
Genus: Peromyscus
Species: P. maniculatus
Binomial name
Peromyscus maniculatus
(Wagner, 1845)
North American Deer Mouse Range Map

Peromyscus maniculatus is a rodent native to North America. It is most commonly called the deer mouse, although that name is common to most species of Peromyscus, and thus is often called the North American Deer Mouse and is fairly widespread across the continent, with the major exception being the southeast United States and the far north.

Like other Peromyscus species, it is a vector and carrier of emerging infectious diseases such as hantaviruses and Lyme disease.[2][3]

It is closely related to Peromyscus leucopus, the white-footed mouse.

Overview[edit]

The scientific name for a deer mouse is Peromyscus maniculatus.[4] The species has 66 subspecies.[5] They are all tiny mammals that are plentiful in number.[6] The deer mouse is described as a small rodent that lives in the Americas and is closely related to the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus.[4] Because the two species are extremely similar in appearance, they are best distinguished through red blood cell agglutination tests or karyotype techniques. The deer mouse can also be distinguished physically by its long and multicolored tail.[7] Deer mice are very often used for laboratory experimentation due to their self cleanliness and easy care.[4]

Physical description[edit]

The deer mouse is small in size, only 3 to 4 inches (8 to 10 cm) long, not including the tail. They have large beady eyes and large ears giving them good sight and hearing. Their soft fur can vary in color, from white to black, but all deer mice have a distinguishable white underside and white feet.[4]

Behavior[edit]

Deer mice are nocturnal creatures who spend the day time in areas such as trees or burrows where they have nests made of plant material.[4] The pups within litters of deer mice are kept by the mother within an individual home range. The deer mice do not mingle in groups with their litters. During the development stages, the mice within one litter interact much more than mice of two different litters. Although deer mice live in individual home ranges, these ranges do tend to overlap. When overlapping occurs, it is more likely to be with opposite sexes rather than with the same sex. Deer mice that live within overlapping home ranges tend to recognize one another and interact a lot.[8]

Reproduction and life span[edit]

Breeding season[edit]

Deer mice can reproduce throughout the year, though in most parts of their range, they breed from March to October.[9] Deer mouse breeding tends to be determined more by food availability rather than by season. In Plumas County, California, deer mice bred through December in good mast (both soft and hard masts) years but ceased breeding in June of a poor mast year.[10] Deer mice breed throughout the year in the Willamette Valley, but in other areas on the Oregon coast there is usually a lull during the wettest and coldest weather.[11] In southeastern Arizona at least one-third of captured deer mice were in breeding condition in winter.[12] In Virginia breeding peaks occur from April to June and from September to October.[13]

Nesting[edit]

Female deer mice construct nests using a variety of materials including grasses, roots, mosses, wool, thistledown, and various artificial fibers.[11] The male deer mice are allowed by the female to help nest the litter and keep them together and warm for survival.[5]

In a study, less than half of both male and female deer mice left their original home range to reproduce. This means that there is intrafamilial mating and that the gene flow among deer mice as a whole is limited.[14]

Gestation, litter size and productivity[edit]

Deer mice reproduce profusely and are highest in numbers among their species compared to other local mammals. Peromyscus species gestation periods range from 22 to 26 days.[15] Typical litters are composed of three to five young;[4] litter size ranges from one to nine young. Most female deer mice have more than one litter per year.[11] Three or four litters per year is probably typical; captive deer mice have borne as many as 14 litters in one year. Males usually live with the family and help care for the young.[9]

Development of young[edit]

Deer mice pups are altricial, i.e. born blind, naked and helpless; development is rapid. Young deer mice have full coats by the end of the second week; their eyes open between 13 and 19 days and they are fully furred and independent in only a few weeks.[11] Females lactate for 27 to 34 days after giving birth; most young are weaned at about 18 to 24 days. The young reach adult size at about 6 weeks and continue to gain weight slowly thereafter.[15]

Age of first estrus averages about 48 days; the earliest recorded was 23 days. The youngest wild female to produce a litter was 55 days old; it was estimated that conception had occurred when she was about 32 days old.[15]

Dispersal[edit]

Deer mouse pups usually disperse after weaning and before the birth of the next litter, when they are reaching sexual maturity. Occasionally juveniles remain in the natal area, particularly when breeding space is limited.[16] Most deer mice travel less than 500 feet (152 m) from the natal area to establish their own home range.[17]

Longevity and mortality[edit]

While their maximum life span is 96 months, the mean life expectancy is 45.5 months for females and 47.5 for males.[18] In many areas deer mice live less than 1 year.[11] O'Farrell reported that a population of deer mice in big sagebrush/grasslands had completely turned over (e.g., there were no surviving adults of the initial population) over the course of one summer.[19] One captive male deer mouse lived 32 months,[11] and there is a report of a forest deer mouse that lived 8 years in captivity (another mouse was fertile until almost 6 years of age).[20]

Habitat[edit]

Peromyscus maniculatus are found in places including Alaska, Canada, and parts of South America.[4] The majority of deer mice nest is up high in large hollow trees. The deer mouse nests alone for the most part but will sometimes nest with a deer mouse of the opposite sex.[14] They are populous in the western mountains and live in wooded areas and areas that were previously wooded. The deer mouse is generally a nocturnal creature.[6] Deer mice can be found active on top of snow or beneath logs during the winter seasons.[5]

Deer mice inhabit a wide variety of plant communities including grasslands, brushy areas, woodlands, and forests.[21] In a survey of small mammals on 29 sites in subalpine forests in Colorado and Wyoming, the deer mouse had the highest frequency of occurrence; however, it was not always the most abundant small mammal.[22] Deer mice were trapped in four of six forest communities in eastern Washington and northern Idaho, and they were the only rodent in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) savanna.[23] In northern New England deer mice are present in both coniferous and deciduous forests.[24] Deer mice are often the only Peromyscus species in northern boreal forest.[10] Subspecies differ in their use of plant communities and vegetation structures. There are two main groups of deer mouse: the prairie deer mouse and the woodland or forest deer mouse group.[21]

Cover requirements[edit]

Deer mice are often active in open habitat; most subspecies do not develop hidden runways the way many voles (Microtus and Clethrionomys spp.) do.[10][25] In open habitat within forests deer mice have a tendency to visit the nearest timber.[26] In central Ontario deer mice used downed wood for runways.[27]

Deer mice nest in burrows dug in the ground or construct nests in raised areas such as brush piles, logs, rocks, stumps, under bark, and in hollows in trees.[11][21][27] Nests are also constructed in various structures and artifacts including old boards and abandoned vehicles. Nests have been found up to 79 feet (24 m) above the ground in Douglas-fir trees.[11]

Predators[edit]

Deer mice are important prey for snakes (Viperidae), owls (Strigidae), mink (Neovison vison), marten (Martes americana) and other weasels (Mustelidae), skunks (Mephites and Spilogale spp.), bobcat (Lynx rufus), domestic cat (Felis catus), coyote (Canis latrans), foxes (Vulpes and Urocyon spp.), and ringtail (Bassariscus astutus).[11]

Diet[edit]

Deer mice are omnivorous; the main dietary items usually include seeds, fruits, arthropods, leaves, and fungi; fungi has the least amount of intake. Throughout the year, the deer mouse will change its eating habits to reflect on what is available to eat during that season. During winter months, the arthropods compose of one-fifth of the deer mouse's food. These include spiders, caterpillars, and heteropterans. During the spring months, seeds become available to eat, along with insects, which are consumed in large quantities. Leaves are also found in the stomachs of deer mice in the spring seasons. During summer months, the mouse consumes seeds and fruits. During the fall season, the deer mice will slowly change its eating habits to resemble the winter's diet.[6]

References[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of Agriculture document "Peromyscus maniculatus".

  1. ^ Linzey, A.V. (2008). "Peromyscus maniculatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 5 February 2010. 
  2. ^ Netski, Dale, Brandonlyn Thran, and Stephen St. Jeor (1999). "Sin Nombre Virus Pathogenesis in Peromyscus maniculatus". Journal of Virology 73 (1): 585–591. 
  3. ^ Crossland, J. and Lewandowski, A. (2006). "Peromyscus – A fascinating laboratory animal model". Techtalk 11 (1–2). 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g The New Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. (Vol. 12, p. 631). Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica.
  5. ^ a b c Hanney, Peter W. Rodents: Their Lives and Habits. New York: Taplinger Publishing Company, 1975.
  6. ^ a b c Jameson, E W (1952). "Food of Deer Mice, Peromyscus maniculatus and P. boylei, in the Northern Sierra Nevada, California". Journal of Mammalogy 33 (1): 50–60. doi:10.2307/1375640. JSTOR 1375640. 
  7. ^ Tessier, Nathalie, Sarah Noel, and Francois Lapointe (2004). "A new method to discriminate the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) from the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) using species-specific primers in multiplex PCR". Canadian Journal of Zoology 82 (11): 1832–35. doi:10.1139/z04-173. 
  8. ^ Dewsbury, Donald (1988). "Kinship, Familiarity, Aggression, and Dominance in Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) in Seminatural Enclosures". Journal of Comparative Psychology 102 (2): 124–8. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.102.2.124. PMID 3165063. 
  9. ^ a b Nowak, Ronald M.; Paradiso, John L. 1983. Walker's mammals of the world. 4th edition. 4th edition. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press
  10. ^ a b c Baker, Rollin H. 1968. Habitats and distribution. In: King, John Arthur, ed. Biology of Peromyscus (Rodentia). Special Publication No. 2. Stillwater, OK: The American Society of Mammalogists: 98–126
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Maser, Chris; Mate, Bruce R.; Franklin, Jerry F.; Dyrness, C. T. 1981. Natural history of Oregon Coast mammals. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-133. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station.
  12. ^ Brown, J. H.; Zeng, Z. (1989). "Comparative Population Ecology of Eleven Species of Rodents in the Chihuahuan Desert". Ecology 70 (5): 1507–1525. doi:10.2307/1938209. JSTOR 1938209. 
  13. ^ Wolff, Jerry O. (1994). "Reproductive success of solitarily and communally nesting white-footed mice and deer mice". Behavioral Ecology 5 (2): 206–209. doi:10.1093/beheco/5.2.206. 
  14. ^ a b Wolff, Jerry, and Deborah Durr (1986). "Winter Nesting Behavior of Peromyscus leucopus and Peromyscus maniculatus". Journal of Mammalogy 67.2 67 (2): 409–12. JSTOR 1380900. 
  15. ^ a b c Layne, JN (1966). "Postnatal development and growth of Peromyscus floridanus". Growth 30 (1): 23–45. PMID 5959707. 
  16. ^ Walters, Bradley B (1991). "Small mammals in a subalpine old-growth forest and clearcuts". Northwest Science 65 (1): 27–31. 
  17. ^ Stickel, Lucille F. 1968. Home range and travels. In: King, John Arthur, ed. Biology of Peromyscus (Rodentia). Special Publication No. 2. Stillwater, OK: The American Society of Mammalogists: 373–411
  18. ^ Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (U.S.). Committee on Animal Models for Research on Aging; National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Animal Models for Research on Aging (1981). Mammalian models for research on aging. National Academies. ISBN 978-0-309-03094-6. Retrieved 11 May 2011. 
  19. ^ O'Farrell, Michael J (1978). "Home range dynamics of rodents in a sagebrush community". Journal of Mammalogy 59 (4): 657–668. doi:10.2307/1380131. JSTOR 1380131. 
  20. ^ Dice, Lee R. 1933. Longevity in Peromyscus maniculatus gracilis. Journal of Mammalogy. 14: 147–148
  21. ^ a b c Whitaker, John O., Jr. 1980. National Audubon Society field guide to North American mammals. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.
  22. ^ Raphael, Martin G. 1987. Nongame wildlife research in subalpine forests of the central Rocky Mountains. In: Management of subalpine forests: building on 50 years of research: Proceedings of a technical conference; 1987 July 6–9; Silver Creek, CO. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-149. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 113–122
  23. ^ Hoffman, G. R. (1960). "The Small Mammal Components of Six Climax Plant Associations in Eastern Washington and Northern Idaho". Ecology 41 (3): 571–572. doi:10.2307/1933338. 
  24. ^ Degraaf, Richard M.; Snyder, Dana P.; Hill, Barbara J. (1991). "Small mammal habitat associations in poletimber and sawtimber stands of four forest cover types". Forest Ecology and Management 46 (3–4): 227–242. doi:10.1016/0378-1127(91)90234-M. 
  25. ^ Wagg, J. W. Bruce. 1964. White spruce regeneration on the Peace and Slave River lowlands. Publ. No. 1069. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Department of Forestry, Forest Research Branch
  26. ^ Gashwiler, Jay S. (1959). "Small mammal study in west-central Oregon". Journal of Mammalogy 40 (1): 128–139. doi:10.2307/1376123. JSTOR 1376123. 
  27. ^ a b Naylor, Brian J. (1994). "Managing wildlife habitat in red pine and white pine forests of central Ontario". Forestry Chronicle 70 (4): 411–419. doi:10.5558/tfc70411-4. 

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