Personal finances of professional American athletes
||The neutrality of this article is disputed. (January 2011)|
The personal finances of professional American athletes is a subject of widespread discussion due to the often high salaries of such athletes and the high rates of personal bankruptcy and other financial distress.
According to a 2009 Sports Illustrated article, 78% of National Football League (NFL) players are either bankrupt or in financial trouble within two years of retirement and an estimated 60% of National Basketball Association players go bankrupt within five years after leaving their sport. Originally the statement "60% of NBA players go bankrupt within five years after leaving their sport" was released by a representative of the NBA Players' Association in 2008, although according to another person it remains unclear if that number is accurate in any way.  A Fortune magazine article states, however, that a working paper from the National Bureau of Economic Research found that the percentage of NFL players who go bankrupt after two years is a much smaller 1.9%, climbing to 15.7% after 12 years.
As of 1911[update] the average salary for the about 500 players in Major League Baseball was slightly more than $2,000 a season ($50,600 today). The star hitter Ty Cobb received $9,000 a season ($227,800 today), and sold automobiles in the off season. While Cobb encouraged young men to play professionally, top pitcher Christy Mathewson—who had made more money as a player than Cobb—warned, "Keep out of baseball unless you are sure of being a star!" He stated that the average player did not make enough over a ten-year career to justify devoting those years to the sport.
By 1941, Hank Greenberg was the highest-paid player in baseball, earning $55,000 a season ($881,900 today). Stan Musial's $80,000 a season ($710,500 today) was the highest in 1952, while young star Mickey Mantle earned $10,000 a season ($88,800 today). Musial, like Cobb, supplemented his income; he owned a restaurant called "Musial's Steak Shack."
Baseball outfielder Torii Hunter brought up another obstacle: "Once you get into the financial stuff, and it sounds like Japanese, guys are just like, 'I ain't going back.' They're lost." It has been often suggested that baseball players study finance in college so that they can understand basic finances and contracts.
Players encourage each other to spend lavishly on frivolities such as alcohol and women. Rod Strickland, who spent an estimated $4 million on a lifetime supply of grape Kool-Aid and Crush, explained, "For rookies, it's like an unspoken initiation ... You're trying to get in good with the veterans, so you go beyond your means." Friends and strangers become part of their entourages. Retired basketball center Danny Schayes stated, "Guys go broke because they surround themselves with people who help them go broke".
Length of careers
"There's a far shorter peak earnings period than in any other profession". Black Enterprise reported in 2003 that "the average career span for professional basketball, football, and baseball is a mere 4.5 years, 3.2 years, and under five years, respectively." A 2007 study found that, excluding pitchers, rookie Major League Baseball players' careers last for 5.6 years on average.
Managers and investments
Magic Johnson said, "They hire these people not because of expertise but because they're friends. Well, they'll fail." Rod Strickland made his father his business manager. The older Strickland checked out a real estate deal from a "friend of a close friend" of Rod's, but not well enough to avoid a costly blunder.
There are important factors that individuals managing finances must consider, especially in this changing environment.
Spouses, children and divorce
When asked by one of his players "What's the most dangerous thing that could happen to us financially?", Carolina Panthers majority owner Jerry Richardson replied immediately, "Divorce." The money stops flowing in. Without a prenuptial agreement, Michael Jordan's $168 million divorce settlement was at the time the largest ever. On the other hand, Dikembe Mutombo canceled his wedding, when his fiancee refused to sign one the day before the ceremony.
Another factor is the sexual opportunities available to athletes during their careers. Players end up being responsible for child support. Shawn Kemp had at least seven children with six women, Derrick Thomas seven with five, Jon Kilgore 15 with 4, and Travis Henry nine with nine. Henry was imprisoned for non-payment of an estimated $170,000 annually.
The National Football League offers its players a Financial Education Program. "The non-credit seminars are offered during the year and teach players about cash management, insurance, tax planning, retirement planning and other related topics." There is also a more advanced NFL Business Management and Entrepreneurial Program, with "custom programs at top-rated business schools".
Ryerson University's Ted Rogers School of Management offers a program called Breakaway, which aims to help players in their transition away from professional hockey and other sports, specifically professional curling.
Education can often be overlooked by professional athletes, once they have made it to their desired sports league. This is a major concern because many professional athletes have no funds or career options to fall back on. Without a college degree, higher education, or in some instances even a high school diploma; there are limited options to explore in the world outside of athletics. Well established athletes like Shaquille O'Neal and Ray Lewis have gone back to receive their college degrees, despite their incredible success in their respected athletic professions. O'Neal explained, "You just need something, a back-up plan, you know? Something to fall back on if you break a hip, or have a seizure or something." One side of the argument says that college athletics and the educational institutions often do not succeed in accommodating their student athletes for their future endeavors outside of sports, and that the overall relationship between schools and athletes can be perceived as commercial, rather than educational.
In college athletics, such as basketball and football, coaches appear to control athletes in and out of season of their respected sport. With incredibly demanding schedules that almost always requires players to miss classes to focus on their athletic performance, one side of the argument is that it can be difficult to state that schools implement policies and coaches that respect athletics and education equally at a university. Universities have been able to counter these arguments by complying with NCAA rules on limits of practice time and extracurricular activities for the sport that do not pertain to the classroom. Universities often argue that not only do these athletes receive an opportunity of a higher education that they might not have necessarily been able to receive, but that these skills enhance competitive drive, discipline, and teamwork skills in future work settings. Scholarships often provide opportunities for those who may not have gotten into a university, based on previous academic performance or financial status, have been the one of the central arguments for universities justifying their athletic standing and policies. Additional arguments now cite the importance of the synergies in the valuable knowledge and experience gained on the field and how these skills are applied in the workplace. In a study done about the mean attribution of life skills to the sport experience, 75% of former athletes who were participants stated that there were major life skills associated with sports that transferred to their working lives. This study analyzed different types of experiential learning, and found that these were often experiential skills that were learned through playing sports that included what ranged from leadership to goal setting. These arguments may more commonly come up to defend universities for implementing high standards in athletic performance. Regardless of these allegations against universities, education is extremely valuable to professional athletes because the average athlete rarely has a long tenure and cannot make their income last for a sustained period of time.
Some believe that the universities are not to blame, and that students often pave their own path. In a survey consisting of previous student athletes, athletic performance and effort was attributed to helping the development of major life skills, especially in the work force. However, this can change from person to person, and social theorists even believe that roles and identities contribute heavily to where a person is headed in life. There are some athletes, whose personality caters to working incredibly hard on the field, rather than off the field, thus developing more of an athletic identity that can get in the way of a career path or education. The same goes with those who have passions in education or some other activity, making student athletes think very differently from one another.
Basketball Hall of Famer Magic Johnson is an example of an athlete who has not only kept his money, but increased it. He has built a thriving business empire. He was at one time a part owner of the Los Angeles Lakers, and his company, Magic Johnson Enterprises, has a net worth of $700 million. In 2012, he was a minority partner in a group that bought the Los Angeles Dodgers.
Jordan has proven almost as successful in his post-basketball business ventures, despite a temporary financial setback due to his divorce. He has numerous business interests, most notably his own line of apparel through Nike. In March 2010, he became the majority owner of the Charlotte Bobcats after buying out most of the interest of founding owner Bob Johnson for $275 million.
Another Hall of Famer, Dave Bing, established a steel processing company, Bing Steel, in Detroit in 1980. After Bing Steel suffered a loss in its first year of operation, Bing decided to shift his company from manufacturing to being a middleman. Bing Steel became profitable in its second year of operation, and has since expanded to become the Bing Group, a conglomerate involved in a number of businesses, including supplying the automotive industry. However, it has been recently announced that the Bing Group is heavily in debt and is in process of being sold. Most of his holdings have either gone bankrupt or been dissolved.
Still another Hall of Famer, Karl Malone, was involved in a substantial number of business ventures during his NBA career, with his involvement both expanding and diversifying since his retirement. A 2012 story in the Deseret News of Salt Lake City, where he played almost all of his NBA career, listed his current ventures. Among these are new-car and used-car dealerships in the Salt Lake City area; a cattle ranch and substantial timber property in his home state of Louisiana; restaurants in Louisiana, Utah and Idaho; a commercial development company; a deer-raising venture; and an outfitting business.
Hall of Fame pitcher Nolan Ryan has proven successful in business, though not at the level of Johnson or Jordan. After the end of his playing career in 1993, he was majority owner and chairman of a bank in his home town of Alvin, Texas before selling his interest in 2005. He also became part owner of two minor-league teams in his home state, the Corpus Christi Hooks and Round Rock Express. In 2010, he was the public face of, and a minority investor in, a group that bought the Texas Rangers, the team with which he finished his Major League Baseball playing career. He owned a controlling interest in the team until late 2013, when he sold his stake after differences with the majority partners of the Rangers.
Former Washington Redskins cornerback Eugene Profit parlayed his Yale economics education into a highly successful financial career. His company, Profit Investment Management, looks after $2 billion in assets.
Another athlete turned successful businessman, at least for a time, was former football safety Dave Duerson, president and CEO of Duerson Foods L.L.C. However, an expansion of his company turned into financial disaster due to issues with a supplier of freezers for a meat processing plant. Duerson Foods won a $34 million judgment against the freezer company in 2004, but never collected because the company later filed for bankruptcy, and Duerson himself filed for bankruptcy in September 2010. Duerson's story turned far more tragic, as he committed suicide in February 2011, and a post-mortem examination of his brain revealed he was suffering from what was described as a "moderately advanced" case of chronic traumatic encephalopathy, presumably from constant blows to the head during his football career.
Vince Young – After earning $45 million in salary and endorsements, Vince Young is one of the most recent pro athletes to go broke.
Antoine Walker – Despite earning $108 million in salary while playing in the NBA, Antoine Walker had to declare bankruptcy in 2010 listing assets of $5 million and debts of $13 million thanks to bad real estate investments and gambling debts.
Evander Holyfield – After earning $250 million as a heavyweight champion, in 2008 a bank foreclosed on Evander's $10 million, 54,000 square foot, 109 bedroom Atlanta mansion.
Kenny Anderson – Despite earning $63 million in salary, Kenny Anderson was broke the day he left the NBA. After filing for bankruptcy, Anderson became a K-12 school teacher.
Warren Sapp – In April 2012, Sapp filed for bankruptcy claiming assets worth $6.5 million and debts of $7 million. The $7 million is owed to the IRS, child support to four different women, and medical bills.
Allen Iverson – In February 2012, Iverson told a Georgia judge that he was flat broke and could not pay an $860k jewelry debt. Iverson earned $154 million in salary and $30-50 million in endorsements during his career. Iverson was known to travel with a 50-person entourage, lost millions of dollars gambling, lavished friends with expensive gifts and had massive monthly child support obligations.
Sheryl Swoopes earned an estimated $50 million playing basketball, and declared bankruptcy in 2004, owing $711,050. Swoopes admitted, "I didn't surround myself with the right people. I got in a position where it was like, 'Oh, wow, what happened?'"
- Pablo S. Torre (March 23, 2009). "How (and Why) Athletes Go Broke". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved January 6, 2011.
- The Star (Toronto) http://www.thestar.com/sports/basketball/2008/01/31/nba_players_financial_security_no_slam_dunk.html. Missing or empty
- Roberts, Daniel (April 15, 2015). "16% of retired NFL players go bankrupt, a report says". Fortune.
- Fox, Edward Lyell (1911-05). "Baseball as the Players See It". Outing Magazine. p. 143. Retrieved 22 January 2014. Check date values in:
- "Army Inducts Highest-paid Baseball Player". Life. 1941-05-19. p. 45. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- "An Old Pro and a Young One". Life. 1952-09-15. p. 71. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- Rick Reilly. "Life of Reilly". ESPN. Retrieved January 6, 2011.
- Alan Hughes (March 2003). "A brand new game: for these athletes, entrepreneurship is the next playing field - Entrepreneurship". Black Enterprise magazine. Retrieved January 6, 2011.
- Roberts, Sam (2007-07-15). "Just How Long Does the Average Baseball Career Last?". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
- S. L. Price (March 2, 2009). "The Ever Elusive, Always Inscrutable And Still Incomparable Bobby Orr". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved January 7, 2011.
- Robinson, Doug (June 26, 2012). "From the Mailman to a businessman, Karl Malone still delivers the goods". Deseret News. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
- "Forbes: Michael Jordan's Divorce Most Costly Ever". Fox News. April 16, 2007. Retrieved January 7, 2011.
- Mike Tierney (March 11, 2009). "With Nine Mouths to Feed, Travis Henry Says He’s Broke". New York Times.
- Lawrence Delevingne (September 12, 2009). "10 Ways Sports Stars Go From Riches To Rags". Business Insider. Retrieved January 7, 2011.
- "Financial Education". nfl.com. Retrieved January 6, 2011.
- Danielle Webb (January 5, 2011). "Education for when a hockey career gets put on ice". Globe and Mail.
- Caryna, John. "Why a college degree is important for professional athletes". Helium.
- McCormick, A. C. "The myth of the student-athlete: The college athlete as employee". Washington Law Review. Retrieved 8 April 2012.
- Caudill, Steven. "The Impact of Participation in Intercollegiate Athletics on Income and Graduation". The MIT Press. Retrieved 8 April 2012.
- Barton, Gavin. "Career success and life skill development through sports". Boston University. Retrieved 8 April 2012.
- Preacco, Lara. "Student-athlete worldview: A qualitative discovery of student-athletes outlook of the world through their athletic experiences". Western Michigan University. Retrieved 8 April 2012.
- Associated Press (March 13, 2010). "Jordan soon to get reins of Bobcats". ESPN.com. Retrieved May 13, 2011.
- Damon Hack (June 16, 2011). "Playing for Profit: Ex-NFL corner succeeds in business after football". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved June 16, 2011.
- "Duerson filed for bankruptcy". ESPNChicago.com. February 22, 2011. Retrieved May 13, 2011.
- "Dave Duerson had brain damage". ESPNChicago.com. May 3, 2011. Retrieved May 13, 2011.
- Andrew Farrell (November 25, 2008). "Sports Stars' Money Meltdowns". Forbes. Retrieved January 7, 2011.
- Liz Robbins (October 27, 2005). "Swoopes Says She Is Gay, and Exhales". New York Times.