Richard D. Cotter
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He was orphaned at a young age and emigrated to the United States in 1850 with his brother John, who moved to Bowling Green, Missouri. There were at least four other siblings - Jeremiah and James Cotter, Mary Cotter Leahey and Elizabeth Cotter Kennedy. Cotter and his siblings were taken in from an orphan's home and educated by John C. Sutton, a St. Louis, Missouri blacksmith, farmer and inventor of the Sutton plow.
At the age of 18, Cotter asked Sutton for permission to go west and seek his fortune in the gold mines as some of the Suttons had done. Instead, scouts of the Whitney Surveying party offered him a job and Cotter took a position as packer on the California Geological Survey under Josiah Whitney from 1862 to 1864. Hired as a packer, Cotter did not actually know much about packing, but caught on quickly. Clarence King called Cotter "our man-of-all-work, to whom science already owes its debts". and described him as "Stout of limb, stronger yet in heart, of iron endurance, and a quiet unexcited temperament, and better yet, devoted to me, I felt that Cotter was the one comrade I would choose to face death with, for I believed there was in his manhood no room for fear or shirk." and, "in all my experience of mountaineering I have never known an act of such real, profound courage as this of Cotter's." In the Exploration of the Sierra Nevada, Francis P. Farquhar describes Cotter as, "an indomitable mountain-climber whose Services were of great value in more than one branch of the work". Mount Whitney, the highest mountain in the contiguous states was first discovered in July 1864 by Clarence King and Richard Cotter.
After Cotter completed the mapping in Yosemite late 1864, he signed up to work on the Western Union Telegraph Expedition to British Columbia and Alaska, with the goal of providing a telegraph link from Asia through Alaska by way of Bering Strait. In 1866 Richard Cotter and J.T. Dyer made a very hazardous and successful exploration of the country between Norton Bay and the mouth of the Koyukuk River on the Yukon. The project was abandoned in July 1866, when completion of the submarine Transatlantic telegraph cable established a link from the United States to Europe. However, the public interest stimulated by the Alaskan project is credited with influencing the purchase of Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for $7.2 million.
Cotter then joined Clarence King on the Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel in 1867, resigned after two years and settled in York just outside Helena, Montana. In 1875 he travelled to Washington Territory and kept a short diary.
Among his occupations in York, he had been a Sunday School superintendent, Postmaster, mine owner, Ranch owner and a Justice of the Peace. He spent the last eight years of his life in the county hospital in Helena where he died on March 12, 1927.
- The Helena Independent, page 3 Estate of R.D. Cotter ordered distributed by District Judge September 26, 1928
- Missouri Historical Society The Sutton Papers - Box 3
- Hill, Mary. Geology of the Sierra Nevada. University of California Press. p. 99. ISBN 0-520-23695-5.
- Moore, James Gregory (2006-02-15). King of the 40th Parallel: Discovery in the American West. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-5223-7.
- Dall, William Healey (2009-07-31). Alaska and its Resources. General Books LLC. ISBN 978-1-4588-0400-6.
- Richard D. Cotter Diary - Montana Historical Society
- Geographic Names Information System. U.S. Geological Survey
- Up and Down California in 1860-1864 by William H. Brewer
- The Sutton Papers (PDF)
- Montana Historical Society
- Mount Cotter
- Picture of Richard Cotter
- Fortieth Parallel Survey Picture 1867