Robert de Vere, Duke of Ireland

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This article is about Robert de Vere, Duke of Ireland. For others by the name of Robert de Vere, see Earl of Oxford.
Robert de Vere, 9th Earl of Oxford
Robert de Vere fleeing Radcot Bridge.jpg
Robert de Vere, Duke of Ireland, fleeing Radcot Bridge, 1387, taken from the Gruthuse manuscript of Froissart's Chroniques (circa 1475)
Spouse(s) Philippa de Coucy
Agnes de Lancecrone
Noble family De Vere
Father Thomas de Vere, 8th Earl of Oxford
Mother Maud de Ufford
Born 16 January 1362
Died November 22, 1392(1392-11-22) (aged 30)
Louvain
Arms of Sir Robert de Vere, as 9th Earl of Oxford, upon his installation to the Most Noble Order of the Garter

Robert de Vere, Duke of Ireland, Marquess of Dublin, and 9th Earl of Oxford KG (16 January 1362 – 22 November 1392) was a favourite and court companion of King Richard II of England.

Early life[edit]

Robert de Vere was the only son of Thomas de Vere, 8th Earl of Oxford and Maud de Ufford.[1] He succeeded his father as 9th Earl in 1371, and was created Marquess of Dublin in 1385. The next year he was created Duke of Ireland. He was thus the first marquess, and only the second non-princely duke (after Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster in 1337), in England. King Richard's close friendship to de Vere was disagreeable to the political establishment. This displeasure was exacerbated by the earl's elevation to the new title of Duke of Ireland in 1386.[2] His relationship with King Richard was very close and rumored by Thomas Walsingham to be homosexual.[3]

Robert, Duke of Ireland, was married to Philippa de Coucy, the King's first cousin (her mother had been the sister of the King's father, Edward, the Black Prince), and also had an affair with Agnes de Launcekrona, a Czech lady-in-waiting of Richard's Queen, Anne of Bohemia. In 1387, the couple were separated and eventually divorced; Ireland took Launcekrona as his second wife.

Downfall[edit]

Since Robert, Duke of Ireland was hugely unpopular with the other nobles and magnates, his close relationship with King Richard was one of the catalysts for the emergence of an organised opposition to his rule in the form of the Lords Appellant.

In 1387, Ireland led Richard's forces to defeat at Radcot Bridge outside Oxford, against the forces of the Lords Appellant. He fled the field and his forces were left leaderless and compelled into ignominious surrender.

He was attainted and sentenced to death in absentia by the Merciless Parliament of 1388 which also made him forfeit his titles and lands. People associated with him also were affected for this parliament also dismissed his Irish Administration, composed of John I Stanley of the Isle of Man, his deputy, who had been serving as Lieutenant of Ireland, James Butler, 3rd Earl of Ormond, the governor, Bishop Alexander de Balscot of Meath, the chancellor, and Sir Robert Crull, the treasurer.[4] Fortuitously for him, he had already fled abroad into exile directly after Radcot Bridge.

Death[edit]

He died in or near Louvain in 1392. Three years later, on the anniversary of his death, 22 November 1395, Richard II had his embalmed body brought back to England for burial. It was recorded by the chronicler Thomas Walsingham that many magnates did not attend the re-burial ceremony because they 'had not yet digested their hatred' of him. The king had the coffin opened to kiss his lost friend's hand and to gaze on his face one last time.[5]

Succession[edit]

After Ireland's death, his uncle Sir Aubrey de Vere, was restored to the family titles and estates, becoming 10th Earl of Oxford.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Richardson IV 2011, pp. 268–9.
  2. ^ McKisack (1959), pp. 425, 442–3.
  3. ^ Saul, Nigel (1997). Richard II. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07003-9. p. 437.
  4. ^ Peter Crooks, The 'Calculus of Faction' and Richard II's Ireland, in Fourteenth Century England, V, ed. Nigel Saul. Woodbridge, England: Thr Boydell Press, 2008. 111-112 ISBN 978-1-84383-387-1
  5. ^ Saul, 461.

References[edit]

  • Richardson, Douglas (2011). Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham IV (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City.  ISBN 1460992709
Political offices
Preceded by
The 8th Earl of Oxford
Lord Great Chamberlain
1371–1388
Succeeded by
The Duke of Exeter
Legal offices
Preceded by
The Duke of York
Justice of Chester
1387–1388
Succeeded by
The Duke of Gloucester
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Thomas de Vere
Earl of Oxford
1371–1388
Succeeded by
Aubrey de Vere