|— Municipality of Belgium —|
|• Mayor||Louis Tobback (SP.A)|
|• Governing party/ies||SP.A, CD&V|
|• Total||56.63 km2 (21.86 sq mi)|
|Population (1 January 2011)|
|• Density||1,700/km2 ( 4,400/sq mi)|
|• Foreigners||9.43% (7 January 2005)|
|Postal codes||3000, 3001, 3010, 3012, 3018|
Leuven (Dutch, pronounced [ˈløːvə(n)] ( listen); French: Louvain, pronounced [luvɛ̃], often used in English) is the capital of the province of Flemish Brabant in the Flemish Region, Belgium. It is located about 25 kilometres east of Brussels, close to other neighbouring towns such as Mechelen, Aarschot, Tienen, and Wavre. The township itself comprises the historical city of Leuven and the former municipalities of Heverlee, Kessel-Lo, a part of Korbeek-Lo, Wilsele and Wijgmaal.
It is home to Anheuser-Busch InBev, the world's largest brewer group and one of the top-five largest consumer-goods companies in the world; and to the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, the largest and oldest university of the Low Countries and the oldest Catholic university still in existence. The Higher Institute of Philosophy is famous worldwide for the archives of the German philosopher Edmund Husserl.
The earliest mention of Leuven ("Loven") is from 891, when a Viking army was defeated by the Frankish king Arnulf of Carinthia (see: Battle of Leuven). According to city legend, its red-white-red colours depict the blood-stained shores of the river Dijle after this battle.
Situated beside this river, and near to the stronghold of the Dukes of Brabant, Leuven became, between the 11th and 14th centuries, the most important centre of trade in the duchy. A token of its former importance as a centre of cloth manufacture is reflected in the typical Leuven linen cloth, known in late-14th-century and 15th-century texts as lewyn (other spellings: Leuwyn, Levyne, Lewan(e), Lovanium, Louvain).
In the 18th century, the Leuven-located brewery Den Horen (meaning "the horn") flourished. In 1708, Sebastien Artois became the master brewer at Den Horen, and gave his name to the brewery in 1717, now part of AB InBev, whose flagship beer, Stella Artois, is brewed in Leuven and sold in many countries.
In the 20th century, both world wars inflicted major damage upon the city. Upon Germany's entry into World War I, the town was heavily damaged by rampaging soldiers. Some German soldiers shot the burgomaster, the university rector and all of the city's police officers. The university library was also destroyed on 25 August 1914, using petrol and incendiary pastilles. Hundreds of thousands of irreplaceable volumes and Gothic and Renaissance manuscripts were lost. 230,000 volumes were lost in the destruction, including a collection of 750 medieval manuscripts and more than 1,000 incunabula (books printed before 1501). The destruction of the library shocked the world, with the Daily Chronicle describing it as war not only against civilians but also against "posterity to the utmost generation." It was rebuilt after the war, and much of the collection was replaced.
Given the presence of the KULeuven, an important European institution for academic research and education, much of the local economy is concentrated on spin-offs from academic research. There are several biotech and ICT companies; Gasthuisberg (nl), the academic hospital and research centre and a large number of private service providers in the medical and legal fields.
Because it is the capital of the region of Flemish-Brabant, many governmental institutions are located in Leuven, as well as the regional headquarters of transport corporations such as De Lijn. As the largest and one of the oldest Flemish cities in the immediate vicinity, with a large range of cafés, restaurants, cultural institutions and shopping neighbourhoods, Leuven also attracts people from nearby cities and villages.
Leuven is the worldwide headquarters of Anheuser-Busch InBev, the largest beer company in the world. InBev's Stella Artois brewery and main offices dominate the entire north-eastern part of the town, between the railway station and the canal to Mechelen.
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There are 97.656 people currently living in Leuven. However, because it is the capital of Flemish Brabant, a lot of neighboring towns' inhabitants travel to Leuven by car, train or bus to go shopping, have recreational activities or enjoying the nightlife. Because of that, and the student population, Leuven seems like a bigger city than only it's population will make you assume. In 2007, 472.060 people were living in the arrondissement, that meaning many of the inhabitants work in Leuven and spend a lot of time there. Leuven's population is growing fast and is about to reach 100.000 inhabitants. Leuven is split up into Leuven (city), Kessel-Lo, Heverlee, Wilsele and Wijgmaal. Most of the population living in the center, Kessel-Lo and Heverlee.
Student population 
Nowadays Leuven is a real "student city", as during the academic year most citizens in its centre are students.
Leuven sports one of the liveliest bar scenes in Belgium. It boasts the "longest bar" in Europe, the Old Market, and dozens of bars and cafés crammed into a central square in Leuven.
There are also a number of hogescholen (Vocational university, literally translated: "high schools"), such as the Katholieke Hogeschool Leuven (nl) (KHLeuven, the Catholic High School Leuven), and the university college Groep T (Group T).
Within the city and its immediate surroundings most distances can be covered on foot or with a bicycle. Nevertheless, there are numerous buses, primarily from the public transportation company De Lijn, that connect the city with the region while providing travel options within the city center. The so-called Ringbus follows the ring road of the city. Except for long distance routes (such as to other cities) and other irregular bus services, most buses come by every 10 minutes. Buses 616, 652 and 651 connect Leuven with Brussels Airport.
There are also a few car parking lots. Several streets are off-limits to vehicle traffic and within the ring road speed regulations prescribe 30 km/h (19 mph) as the maximum speed limit.
The train station of Leuven is located on the railways 35 (Leuven - Aarschot - Hasselt), 36 (Brussels - Liège), 36N (Schaarbeek - Leuven), 53 (Schellebelle - Leuven), and 139 (Leuven - Ottignies). In Bierbeek, south-west of Leuven, lies the beginning of HSL 2, the high-speed railway towards Liège.
The current mayor of Leuven is Louis Tobback, a socialist prominent on the national level, formerly minister of internal affairs and leader of the socialist faction in the lower chamber of the Belgian parliament, among other positions held. The governing coalition consists of SP.A (16 out of 45 seats in the municipal council) and CD&V (9 seats). The opposition is composed of N-VA (9 seats), Groen! (7 seats), open VLD (3 seats) and Vlaams Belang (1 seat).
One of Belgium's finest conservatories is based in Leuven: the Lemmens Institute, which is described as "Faculty of Music, Performing Arts and Education". It is known for its Music Therapy Education and its Wordart-Drama Education.
Leuven is well known for its summer rock festival, Marktrock. The main football club of the municipality is Oud-Heverlee Leuven, successor of K. Stade Leuven. Leuven also has some orchestras, such as the famous Arenberg Orchestra (nl).
Buildings and landmarks 
- The Town Hall, built by Sulpitius van Vorst (nl), Jan II Keldermans, and, after both of them died, Matheus de Layens between 1439 and 1463 in a Brabantian late-Gothic style. The reception hall dates from 1750.
- The St. Peter's Church (1425–1500) was finished by Jan Keldermans and Matheus de Layens. During the Second World War the church was damaged; during the restoration a Romanesque crypt from the 11th century was found. In the church itself there are several paintings from the 17th and 18th centuries (among others, Dirk Bouts's famous painting of the last supper) and the grave of Duke Henry I of Brabant. The 50-metre-high tower — which was meant to be 169 metres high, but was never completed — is home to a carillon. The tower was included in UNESCO's list of Belfries of Belgium and France in 1999.
- Saint-Anthony's Chapel, Pater Damiaanplein, from the 17th to the 20th centuries, contains the tomb of Father Damien, the "leper priest" of Molokai, beatified by Pope John Paul II. The Catholic priest's remains were returned in Belgium with great fanfare in 1936, after having been originally buried on the Hawaiian Island of Molokai where he had served the outcast lepers until his death.
- The Linen-hall, in an early-Gothic style, with baroque addition, is today the University Hall.
- The Church of Saint Michael was built in the typical Jesuit Baroque Style.
- The Church of Saint Quinten incorporates remains of a Romanesque church built in the 13th century.
- The University Library on the Ladeuzeplein was built by the American architect Whitney Warren. It was a gift from the American people to Leuven after World War I, during which the Germans burned down the original library, causing much outrage in the US. The tower houses one of the largest carillons in the world.
- Totem is a statue at the centre of the Ladeuzeplein; it is a work of the Belgian artist Jan Fabre. Featuring a 23-metre-high needle impaling a giant jewelled beetle, the statue towers over the square in front of the university library.
- There is a neo-Romanesque Abbey on the Keizersberg ("Emperor's Mountain"), where there once stood a 12th-century ducal castle, which was demolished in the 17th Century.
- The Large Beguinage is one of the world's best remaining examples of its architectural type. It was recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in 1998.
- There are several other smaller churches and chapels throughout the town.
- "Fonske" is a statue near the centre of town. Its full name is Fons Sapientiae, Latin for "fountain of wisdom". The statue represents a university student who, while reading a book, lets wisdom flow into his head as liquid from a glass. Just like Manneken Pis in Brussels, Fonske is, from time to time, dressed in costumes appropriate for specific occasions.
- Lerkeveld is a famous Jesuit abbey, and headquarters of the Jesuits in Belgium.
- The Irish College of Louvain/Leuven in located in the city, on Pater Damiaanplein. The Leuven Institute for Ireland in Europe is located on the premises.
Notable people from Leuven 
Born in Leuven 
- Most Dukes of Brabant in the 12th and 13th centuries
- Maria of Brabant, queen consort of France (1256–1321)
- Martin Margiela, fashion designer (b. 1957)
- Quentin Matsys, painter (1466–1530)
- Petrus van der Aa, jurist (1530–1594)
- Valerio Profondavalle, painter (b. 1533)
- Adriaan van Roomen, mathematician (1561–1615)
- Charles de Bériot, violinist (1802–1870)
- Eugène Prévinaire, (1805–1877), second governor of the National Bank of Belgium
- Laurent-Guillaume de Koninck, palaeontologist and chemist (1809–1887)
- Jean Stas, analytical chemist (1813–1891)
- Arthur De Greef, pianist and composer (1862–1940)
- Jean Hissette, ophthalmologist (1888-1965)
- Christian de Duve, cytologist and biochemist, recipient of the 1974 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine (b. 1917)
- Hortense Clews World War II Resistance worker and concentration camp survivor (b.1926)
- Arthur Berckmans, comics author (b. 1929)
- Mark Eyskens, politician and former Prime Minister of Belgium (b. 1933)
- Louis Tobback, politician and mayor (b. 1938)
- Emiel Puttemans, middle- and long-distance runner (b. 1947)
- Chris Miseur, painter (b. 1953)
- Daniël Theys, expressive artist and glassmaker (b. 1953)
- Peter Van Lancker, boat designer (b. 1952)
- Jaak Pijpen (nl), media personality (b. 1952)
- Frank Vandenbroucke, politician (b. 1955)
- Thomas Meuwissen, violinmaker (b. 1966)
- Bruno Bosteels, philosopher, known for English translations of Alain Badiou (b. 1967)
- Kim Gevaert, sprint athlete, Olympic silver medalist in 4×100 relay (b. 1978)
- Jonathan Vandenbroeck, singer-songwriter, better known as Milow (b. 1981)
- Dries Mertens, footballer (b. 1987)
Lived in Leuven 
- Jean Baptiste Abbeloos, orientalist and rector of the University of Leuven (1836–1906)
- Adrian VI, pope and theologian (1459–1523)
- Michel Baius, theologian (1513–1589)
- Dirk Bouts, painter (c. 1410/20-1475)
- Eustace Chapuys, Imperial ambassador to England (1489–1556)
- Matheus de Layens, architect (d.1483)
- Koenraad Elst
- Desiderius Erasmus, humanist and theologian (1466–1536)
- Cornelius Jansen, father of Jansenism (1585–1638)
- Jean-Baptiste Janssens, philosophy teacher, Superior General of the Society of Jesus (1889–1964)
- Abdul Qadeer Khan, metallurgical engineer (b. 1935)
- Georges Lemaître, astronomer (1894–1966)
- Ron Lewis, basketball player (b. 1984)
- Justus Lipsius, philologist and humanist (1547–1606)
- Mícheál Ó Cléirigh, Irish chronicler (1590–1643)
- Jan Van der Roost, composer (b. 1956)
- Philip Verheyen, surgeon and rector of the University of Leuven (1648–1711)
- Andreas Vesalius, anatomist, physician (1514–1564)
- Gerardus Mercator, Flemish cartographer (1512–1594)
- Johannes Basius, agent and advisor of William of Orange (1540-1596)
Sister cities 
Leuven is twinned with:
Besides these sister cities, Leuven has friendly relations with:
- "Louvain", chapter from George Wharton Edwards 1911 book, Some Old Flemish Towns. (Wikisource)
- Knuth, Rebecca (2006). Burning Books and Leveling Libraries: Extremist Violence and Cultural Destruction. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
- Tuchman, Barbara (1962). The Guns of August. New York: Macmillan.
- Population per municipality on 1 January 2011 (XLS; 322 KB)
- "Blaeu Atlas (UCLA Library – YRL Reference and Instructional Services)". Library.ucla.edu. 2003-04-02. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- Michael S. Neiberg, Fighting the Great War: A Global History, Harvard University Press, 2005.
- Kramer, Alan (2008). Dynamic Of Destruction, Culture and mass killing in the first world war. Penguin. ISBN 9781846140136.
- Gibson, Craig (January 30, 2008). "The culture of destruction in the First World War". Times Literary Supplement. Retrieved 2008-02-18.
- Knuth 2006, p. 164.
- Tuchman 1962, p. 321.
- arenbergorkest.ulyssis.be (Dutch)
Further reading 
- "Louvain", Belgium and Holland: Handbook for Travellers (6th ed.), Leipsic: Karl Baedeker, 1881
- W. Pembroke Fetridge (1885), "Louvain", Harper's hand-book for travellers in Europe and the east: being a guide through Great Britain and Ireland, France, Belgium, Holland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Egypt, Syria, Turkey, Greece, Switzerland, Tyrol, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Russia, Spain, and Portugal, New York: Harper & Brothers
- "Louvain", Belgium and Holland, including the grand-duchy of Luxembourg (15th ed.), Leipzig: Karl Baedeker, 1910, OCLC 397759
- "Louvain", The Encyclopaedia Britannica (11th ed.), New York: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910, OCLC 14782424
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Leuven|
|Wikivoyage has travel information related to: Leuven|
- Oude Markt Leuven (Oude Markt Leuven website)
- Drieduizend, Leuven Photoblog
- Leuven photo gallery
- Detailed map of Leuven (detailed map of Leuven by the KUL)
- Free map of Leuven (partial OpenStreetMap of Leuven)