Joaquina Rosa Aguilar Rivero (Córdoba, Spain, 7 July 1957) is a Spanish politician currently belonging to the Socialist Party. She was the mayor of Córdoba between 1999 and 2009. She was shortlisted for the 2008 World Mayor award. On 20 October 2010, she was appointed Spanish Minister of Environment, Rural and Marine Affairs, serving until the defeat of José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero's government in the Spanish general election, 2011.
Aguilar joined the Communist Party of Spain (PCE) and followed the party into the coalition United Left (IU) in 1986. In 1987 she was elected to Córdoba City Council for IU, remaining a councillor until 1991. She was a deputy in the Parliament of Andalusia between 1990 and 1993. In the latter year she was elected to the Spanish Congress of Deputies for Cordoba Province and held the seat in the 1996 General Election. She did not stand at the 2000 election.
Following poor election results for IU at the 2008 general election, she was mentioned as a possible successor to Gaspar Llamazares as IU leader, though in the event Cayo Lara became leader. Her membership of IU came to an end in April 2009 when she was expelled from IU after she had accepted an offer to become Minister for Public works in the Andalucian regional government.
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