Ross 154

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Ross 154
Observation data
Epoch J2000      Equinox J2000
Constellation Sagittarius
Right ascension 18h 49m 49.36216s[1]
Declination –23° 50′ 10.4291″[1]
Apparent magnitude (V) 10.44[2]
Characteristics
Spectral type M3.5V[2]
B−V color index 1.76[3]
Variable type Flare star[4]
Astrometry
Radial velocity (Rv) –10.7[5] km/s
Proper motion (μ) RA: +637.02[1] mas/yr
Dec.: –191.64[1] mas/yr
Parallax (π) 336.72 ± 2.03[1][6] mas
Distance 9.69 ± 0.06 ly
(2.97 ± 0.02 pc)
Absolute magnitude (MV) 13.07[2]
Details
Mass 0.17[2] M
Radius 0.24[7] R
Luminosity 0.0038[8] L
Surface gravity (log g) 5.00 ± 0.05[9] cgs
Temperature 3,340 ± 10[9] K
Metallicity [Fe/H] -0.25[10] dex
Rotational velocity (v sin i) 3.5 ± 1.5[10] km/s
Age under 1[10] Gyr
Other designations
AC-24 2833-183, GCTP 4338, GJ 729, HIP 92403, LHS 3414, V1216 Sagittarii.[11]

Ross 154 (V1216 Sgr) is a star in the southern zodiac constellation of Sagittarius. It has an apparent visual magnitude of 10.44,[2] making it much too faint to be seen with the naked eye. At a minimum, viewing Ross 154 requires a telescope with an aperture of 6.5 cm (3 in) under ideal conditions.[12] The distance to this star can be estimated from parallax measurements, which places it at 9.69 light-years (2.97 parsecs) away from Earth.[1] It is the nearest star in the southern constellation Sagittarius, and one of the nearest stars to the Sun.

This star was first catalogued by American astronomer Frank Elmore Ross in 1925, and formed part of his fourth list of new variable stars.[13] In 1926, he added it to his second list of stars showing a measurable proper motion after comparing its position with photographic plates taken earlier by fellow American astronomer E. E. Barnard.[14] A preliminary parallax value of 0.362 ± 0.006 arcseconds was determined in 1937 by Walter O'Connell using photographic plates from the Yale telescope in Johannesburg, South Africa. This placed the star at the sixth position of the then-known nearby stars.[15]

Ross 154 distance estimates

Source Parallax, mas Distance, pc Distance, ly Distance, Pm Ref.
O'Connell (1938) 362 ± 6 2.76 ± 0.05 9.01 ± 0.15 85.2 ± 1.4 [15]
Woolley et al. (1970) 345 ± 8 2.9 ± 0.07 9.45+0.22
−0.21
89.4+2.1
−2
[16]
Gliese & Jahreiß (1991) 341.1 ± 8.1 2.93 ± 0.07 9.56+0.23
−0.22
90.5+2.2
−2.1
[17]
van Altena et al. (1995) 345.2 ± 8.1 2.9 ± 0.07 9.45+0.23
−0.22
89.4+2.1
−2
[18]
Perryman et al. (1997)
(Hipparcos)
336.48 ± 1.82 2.972 ± 0.016 9.69 ± 0.05 91.7 ± 0.5 [19]
Perryman et al. (1997)
(Tycho)
(absents) [20]
van Leeuwen (2007) 336.72 ± 2.03 2.97 ± 0.018 9.69 ± 0.06 91.6+0.6
−0.5
[6]
RECONS TOP100 (2012) 337.22 ± 1.97[nb 1] 2.965 ± 0.017 9.67 ± 0.06 91.5 ± 0.5 [21]

Non-trigonometric distance estimates are marked in italic. The best estimate is marked in bold.

Ross 154 was found to be a UV Ceti-type flare star, with a mean time between major flares of about two days.[4] The first such flare activity was observed from Australia in 1951 when the star increased in magnitude by 0.4.[22] Typically, the star will increase by 3–4 magnitudes during a flare.[23] The strength of the star's surface magnetic field is an estimated 2.2 ± 0.1 kG.[24] Ross 154 is an X-ray source and it has been detected by several X-ray observatories. The quiescent X-ray luminosity is about 9 × 1027 ergs s−1.[10] X-ray flare emission from this star has been observed by Chandra observatory, with a particularly large flare emitting 2.3 × 1033 erg.[10]

A stellar classification of M3.5V[2] makes this a red dwarf star that is generating energy through the nuclear fusion of hydrogen at its core. It has an estimated 17% of the Sun's mass[2] and 24% of the Sun's radius,[7] but it is radiating only 0.38% of the luminosity of the Sun.[8] In contrast to the Sun where convection only occurs in the outer layers, a red dwarf with a mass this low will be entirely convective.[25] Based on the relatively high projected rotation, this is probably a young star with an estimated age of less than a billion years.[10] The abundance of elements heavier than helium is about half that in the Sun.[10]

No low-mass companions have been discovered in orbit around Ross 154.[26] Nor does it display the level of excess infrared emission that would suggest the presence of circumstellar dust. Such debris disks are rare among M-type star systems older than about 10 million years, having been primarily cleared away by drag from the stellar wind.[27] The space velocity components of this star in the galactic coordinate system are [U, V, W] = [–12.2, –1.0, –7.2] km s–1.[28] It has not been identified as a member of a specific stellar moving group[29] and is orbiting through the Milky Way galaxy at a distance from the core that varies from 27.65–30.66 kly (8.48–9.40 kpc) with an orbital eccentricity of 0.052.[30] Based on its low velocity relative to the Sun, this is believed to be a young disk (Population I) star.[31] This star will make its closest approach to the Sun in about 157,000 years, when it comes within 6.39 ± 0.10 ly (1.959 ± 0.031 pc).[32]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f van Leeuwen, F. (November 2007), "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction", Astronomy and Astrophysics 474 (2): 653–664, arXiv:0708.1752, Bibcode:2007A&A...474..653V, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Staff (January 1, 2008), The One Hundred Nearest Star Systems, Research Consortium on Nearby Stars, retrieved 2008-06-12 
  3. ^ Corben, P. M. et al. (1972), "U, B, V photometry of 500 southern stars", Monthly Notes of the Astronomical Society of South Africa 31: 7–22, Bibcode:1972MNSSA..31....8C 
  4. ^ a b Jarrett, A. H.; Grabner, G. (1976), "On the Period Between Flares of V1216 Sagittarii", Information Bulletin on Variable Stars (1221): 1, Bibcode:1976IBVS.1221....1J 
  5. ^ Gontcharov, G. A. (2006), Pulkovo Compilation of Radial Velocities for 35493 Hipparcos Stars, retrieved 2010-04-18 
  6. ^ a b van Leeuwen F. (2007). "HIP 92403". Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction. Retrieved 2014-06-05. 
  7. ^ a b Johnson, H. M.; Wright, C. D. (1983), "Predicted infrared brightness of stars within 25 parsecs of the sun", Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 53: 643–711, Bibcode:1983ApJS...53..643J, doi:10.1086/190905 —see p. 693.
  8. ^ a b Pettersen, B. R. (1980), "Physical parameters of solar neighbourhood flare stars", Astronomy and Astrophysics 82 (1–2): 53–60, Bibcode:1980A&A....82...53P 
  9. ^ a b Mentuch, Erin et al., "Lithium Depletion of Nearby Young Stellar Associations", The Astrophysical Journal 689 (2): 1127–1140, arXiv:0808.3584, Bibcode:2008ApJ...689.1127M, doi:10.1086/592764 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Wargelin, B. J. et al. (2008), "X-Ray Flaring on the dMe Star, Ross 154", The Astrophysical Journal 676 (1): 610–627, arXiv:0712.2791, Bibcode:2008ApJ...676..610W, doi:10.1086/528702 
  11. ^ "V* V1216 Sgr -- Flare Star", SIMBAD (Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg), retrieved 2008-06-12 
  12. ^ Mills, H. Robert (1994), Practical Astronomy: A User-friendly Handbook for Skywatchers, Horwood Publishing, p. 199, ISBN 1-898563-02-0 
  13. ^ Ross, Frank E. (1926), "New variable stars, (fourth list)", Astronomical Journal 37: 91, Bibcode:1927AJ.....37...91R, doi:10.1086/104790 
  14. ^ Ross, Frank E. (February 1926), "New proper-motion stars, (second list)", Astronomical Journal 36 (856): 124–128, Bibcode:1926AJ.....36..124R, doi:10.1086/104699 
  15. ^ a b O'Connell, Walter (February 1938), "A faint star of large parallax", Astronomical Journal 46 (1078): 204, Bibcode:1938AJ.....46..204O, doi:10.1086/105447 
  16. ^ Woolley R.; Epps E. A.; Penston M. J.; Pocock S. B. (1970). "Woolley 729". Catalogue of stars within 25 parsecs of the Sun. Retrieved 2014-06-05. 
  17. ^ Gliese, W. and Jahreiß, H. (1991). "Gl 729". Preliminary Version of the Third Catalogue of Nearby Stars. Retrieved 2014-06-05. 
  18. ^ Van Altena W. F., Lee J. T., Hoffleit E. D. (1995). "GCTP 4338". The General Catalogue of Trigonometric Stellar Parallaxes, Fourth Edition. Retrieved 2014-06-05. 
  19. ^ Perryman et al. (1997). "HIP 92403". The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues. Retrieved 2014-06-05. 
  20. ^ Perryman et al. (1997). "HIP 92403". The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues. Retrieved 2014-06-05. 
  21. ^ "RECONS TOP100". THE ONE HUNDRED NEAREST STAR SYSTEMS brought to you by RECONS (Research Consortium On Nearby Stars). 2012. Retrieved 2014-06-05. 
  22. ^ Mayall, Margaret W. (February 1953), "Variable Star Notes", Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada 47: 23–28, Bibcode:1953JRASC..47...23M 
  23. ^ Costa, R.; Cristaldi, S.; Rodono, M. (1970), "Cooperative Observations of the Flare Star V1216 Sgr", Information Bulletin on Variable Stars 461: 1–4, Bibcode:1970IBVS..461....1C 
  24. ^ Reiners, A.; Basri, G. (February 2007), "The First Direct Measurements of Surface Magnetic Fields on Very Low Mass Stars", The Astrophysical Journal 656 (2): 1121–1135, arXiv:astro-ph/0610365, Bibcode:2007ApJ...656.1121R, doi:10.1086/510304 
  25. ^ Reiners, A.; Basri, G. (March 2009), "On the magnetic topology of partially and fully convective stars", Astronomy and Astrophysics 496 (3): 787–790, arXiv:0901.1659, Bibcode:2009A&A...496..787R, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200811450 
  26. ^ Hinz, Joannah L. et al. (2002), "A Near-Infrared Wide-Field Proper Motion Search for Brown Dwarfs", The Astronomical Journal 123 (4): 2027–2032, arXiv:astro-ph/0201140, Bibcode:2002AJ....123.2027H, doi:10.1086/339555 
  27. ^ Plavchan, Peter; Jura, M.; Lipscy, S. J. (October 2005), "Where Are the M Dwarf Disks Older Than 10 Million Years?", The Astrophysical Journal 631 (2): 1161–1169, arXiv:astro-ph/0506132, Bibcode:2005ApJ...631.1161P, doi:10.1086/432568 
  28. ^ "Annotations on V* V1216 Sgr object". SIMBAD. Retrieved 2010-04-18. 
  29. ^ Montes, D. et al. (2001), "Late-type members of young stellar kinematic groups - I. Single stars", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 328 (1): 45–63, arXiv:astro-ph/0106537, Bibcode:2001MNRAS.328...45M, doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04781.x 
  30. ^ Allen, C.; Herrera, M. A. (1998), "The galactic orbits of nearby UV Ceti stars", Revista Mexicana de Astronomia y Astrofisica 34: 37–46, Bibcode:1998larm.confE.115A 
  31. ^ Veeder, G. J. (1974), "Old disk flare stars", Astronomical Journal 79: 702–704, Bibcode:1974AJ.....79..702V, doi:10.1086/111600 
  32. ^ Bobylev, V. V. (March 2010), "Searching for stars closely encountering with the solar system", Astronomy Letters 36 (3): 220–226, arXiv:1003.2160, Bibcode:2010AstL...36..220B, doi:10.1134/S1063773710030060 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Weighted parallax based on parallaxes from van Altena et al. (1995) and van Leeuwen (2007).

External links[edit]

Coordinates: Sky map 18h 49m 49.3625s, −23° 50′ 10.437″