Ruddy Duck

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Ruddy Duck
A male at Whipsnade Zoo
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Anseriformes
Family: Anatidae
Subfamily: Oxyurinae
Genus: Oxyura
Species: O. jamaicensis
Binomial name
Oxyura jamaicensis
(Gmelin, 1789)
Subspecies
  • O. j. jamaicensis (Gmelin, 1789)
    (North American Ruddy Duck)
  • O. j. rubida (Wilson, 1814) (disputed)
  • O. j. andina Lehmann, 1946
    (Colombian Ruddy Duck)
  • O. j. ferruginea (Eyton, 1838)
    (Andean Ruddy Duck)
Subspecies ranges

     Oxyura jamaicensis andina      Oxyura jamaicensis jamaicensis      Oxyura jamaicensis ferruginea

Synonyms

Erismatura jamaicensis

The Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis) is a duck from North America and the Andes Mountains of South America, one of the stiff-tailed ducks.

Description[edit]

Adult males have a rust-red body, a blue bill, and a white face with a black cap. Adult females have a grey-brown body with a greyish face with a darker bill, cap and a cheek stripe. The southern subspecies ferruginea is occasionally considered a distinct species. It is separable by its all-black face and larger size. The subspecies andina has a varying amount of black coloration on its white face; it may in fact be nothing more than a hybrid population between the North American and the Andean Ruddy Duck. As the Colombian population is becoming scarce, it is necessary to clarify its taxonomic status, because it would be relevant for conservation purposes.[citation needed]

Breeding and habits[edit]

Their breeding habitat is marshy lakes and ponds. They nest in dense marsh vegetation near water. The female builds the nest out of grass, locating it in tall vegetation to hide it from predators. A typical brood contains 5 to 15 ducklings.[2] Pairs form each year.

They are migratory and winter in coastal bays and unfrozen lakes and ponds.

These birds dive and swim underwater. They mainly eat seeds and roots of aquatic plants, aquatic insects and crustaceans.

Male on the left, female on the right

As a result of escapes from wildfowl collections in the late 1950s, they became established in Great Britain, from where they spread into Europe. This duck's aggressive courting behaviour and willingness to interbreed with the endangered native White-headed Duck (Oxyura leucocephala), of southern Europe, caused concern amongst Spanish conservationists. Due to this, a controversial scheme to extirpate the Ruddy Duck as a British breeding species started; there have also been culling attempts in other European countries.[3][4] By early 2014, the cull had reduced the British population to about 20–100, down from a peak of about 5500 in 2000.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Oxyura jamaicensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ "Ruddy Duck Fact Sheet, Lincoln Park Zoo"
  3. ^ "R.I.P. Ruddy duck". BBC News. 3 March 2003. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  4. ^ Vidal, John (8 March 2012). "Final 100 ruddy ducks in the UK facing extermination". theguardian.com. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  5. ^ Langley, William (8 February 2014). "The ruddy ducks with nowhere left to hide". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 

External links[edit]