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S1000D is an international specification for the procurement and production of technical publications. It is an XML specification for preparing, managing, and using equipment maintenance and operations information. It was initially developed by the AeroSpace and Defence Industries Association of Europe (ASD) for use with military aircraft. The specification has since been modified for use with land, sea, and commercial equipment.
S1000D is maintained by the S1000D Steering Committee, which includes board members from ASD, the United States' Aerospace Industries Association (AIA), and the Air Transport Association (ATA), along with national industry and defence representatives from most of the countries currently using the specification.
The specification is free to download and use, although it is recommended that advice be sought on the best methods for implementing an S1000D repository.
What does it stand for? 
The S stands for Specification, 1000 is inspired by the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) of human knowledge and an exaggeration of the ATA100 civil aviation system, and D stands for Documentation.
S1000D requires a document to be broken down into individual data items (called Data Modules) which can be marked with individual XML labels and metadata, and be part of a hierarchical XML structure. This permits the updating of single data items without necessarily changing the path down the XML tree which points to them. Knowledge so partitioned and classified can therefore be shared among many publications, and updating of items in the underlying S1000D (XML) document will automatically effect updating of the dependent publications.
An actual XML hierarchy must be designed specifically for each different knowledge domain.
For S1000D data in English, the text should adhere to ASD-STE100 Simplified Technical English.