In mathematics, scalar multiplication is one of the basic operations defining a vector space in linear algebra (or more generally, a module in abstract algebra). In an intuitive geometrical context, scalar multiplication of a real Euclidean vector by a positive real number multiplies the magnitude of the vector without changing its direction. The term "scalar" itself derives from this usage: a scalar is that which scales vectors. Scalar multiplication is the multiplication of a vector by a scalar (where the product is a vector), and must be distinguished from inner product of two vectors (where the product is a scalar).
Scalar multiplication obeys the following rules (vector in boldface):
- Left distributivity: (c + d)v = cv + dv;
- Right distributivity: c(v + w) = cv + cw;
- Associativity: (cd)v = c(dv);
- Multiplying by 1 does not change a vector: 1v = v;
- Multiplying by 0 gives the null vector: 0v = 0;
- Multiplying by −1 gives the additive inverse: (−1)v = −v.
Here + is addition either in the field or in the vector space, as appropriate; and 0 is the additive identity in either. Juxtaposition indicates either scalar multiplication or the multiplication operation in the field.
Scalar multiplication may be viewed as an external binary operation or as an action of the field on the vector space. A geometric interpretation to scalar multiplication is a stretching or shrinking of a vector.
As a special case, V may be taken to be K itself and scalar multiplication may then be taken to be simply the multiplication in the field.
When V is Kn, scalar multiplication is equivalent to multiplication of each component with the scalar, and may be defined as such.
The same idea applies if K is a commutative ring and V is a module over K. K can even be a rig, but then there is no additive inverse. If K is not commutative, the distinct operations left scalar multiplication cv and right scalar multiplication vc may be defined.
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