Scaphiopus holbrookii

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Scaphiopus holbrookii
Scaphiopus holbrookii1-.jpg
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Suborder: Mesobatrachia
Family: Scaphiopodidae[2][3]
Genus: Scaphiopus
Species: S. holbrookii
Binomial name
Scaphiopus holbrookii
(Harlan, 1835)
Synonyms
  • Rana holbrookii Harlan, 1835
  • Scaphiopus solitarius Holbrook, 1836
  • Scaphiopus holbrookii Cope, 1889

Scaphiopus holbrookii, commonly known as the Eastern spadefoot, is a species of American spadefoot toad endemic to North America.

Geographic range[edit]

It is found in the southeastern United States, except for mountainous areas, and is also found northward along the Atlantic Coast, through the Mid-Atlantic states, into southern New England, including eastern Massachusetts. It is found in inland states such as Pennsylvania and New York, but only as far westward as the appalacian mountains, and the Hudson River Valley in New York.[4]

Description[edit]

An American Eastern spadefoot.

The average length (head + body) of an adult Eastern spadefoot is 44-57 mm (1¾-2¼ in).

It is brownish with two yellowish stripes on its back. These stripes, which begin on the upper eyelids, may diverge or converge, resulting in a pattern resembling a lyre or an hourglass. Some specimens may be very dark, with less distinct markings.[4]

It has one spur on each of its back feet for burrowing.[5]

Behavior[edit]

It spends almost all of its life deep underground; coming out only to breed, and sometimes eat. It remains in a type of hibernation almost all its life. It burrows in a spiral, preferring sandy soils.

Etymology[edit]

The epithet, holbrookii, is in honor of John Edwards Holbrook, American herpetologist.

Links[edit]

Outdoor Alabama - Eastern Spadefoot

References[edit]

  1. ^ Geoffrey Hammerson (2004). Scaphiopus holbrookii. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 27 March 2009.
  2. ^ Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). www.itis.gov.
  3. ^ Amphibian Species of the World 5.5, an Online Reference. research.amnh.org/vz/herpetology/amphibia/.
  4. ^ a b Conant, Roger. 1975. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 429 pp. ISBN 0-395-19977-8 (pbk.) (Scaphiopus holbrooki holbrooki, p. 299 + Plate 44 + Map 253.)
  5. ^ eNature: FieldGuides: Species Detail