Seni Gayung Fatani
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (December 2012)|
|Emblem of the Seni Gayung Fatani Malaysia Association|
|Also known as||Silat, Silat Melayu, Silat Malaysia, Gayung, Gayung Fatani|
|Country of origin||Malaysia|
|Famous practitioners||Tuan Guru Hj. Anuar bin Abd. Wahab, Tuan Guru Aminuddin bin Hj. Anuar and Tuan Guru Prof. Dr. Mohamad Nizam bin Mohamed Shapie|
|Official website||Seni Gayung Fatani Malaysia, Silat Malaysia, Pusat Cemerlang Silat Malaysia|
Seni Gayung Fatani is a style of silat from Malaysia based on joint-locking techniques. The current grandmaster is Tuan Guru Aminuddin Hj. Anuar (the first son to the first grandmaster, the late Tuan Guru Hj. Anuar Abdul Wahab AMN). In Malay, the word seni means art and gayung or gayong is a word for martial arts, synonymous with silat. Fatani means wise in Arabic and was chosen after the long discussion by the first grandmaster, Tuan Guru Anuar Abdul Wahab with others old gurus of Seni Gayung Fatani Malaysia in 1976.
Seni Gayung Fatani originated from Traditional Malay Silat (Peninsula of Langkasuka, Kemboja and Campa) before being brought to Kedah, Malaysia in 1890 by Tuan Guru Syeikh Abdul Rahman. The style was expanded upon by his son Tuan Guru Tok Yah Ramli. Another of Abdul Rahman's students was Tuan Guru Pak Teh Mat Ali who taught this style to Tuan Guru Pak Andak Embong. Pak Andak Embung taught Tuan Guru Anuar Abdul Wahab the Gayung Fatani style. When it was registered in 1976 as an association under the Government's Club Act, the name was formalized to Seni Gayung Fatani.
The new syllabus outlined by Tuan Haji Anuar has seven different levels. Each level teaches techniques of its own while maintaining the same basic form. Some of these are:
Bunga Silat 
- Bunga means the basis of silat movements which consists of seven langkah (steps), seven kuda-kuda (stances) and seven limbai (hand positions). The Bunga will help the silat exponent to master the defensive and striking position in silat.
- There are some silat vocabularies that one needs to understand in order to master the whole concept of bunga silat.
- The offensive form of the bunga silat in which the steps are either blocks, attacks or deflections. Based on Malaysian dictionary (Kamus Dewan), jurus silat means repetition, continuation or moving towards specific direction.
- This word is used in silat to explain the movements of silat either attacking, defensive or counter-attack towards any aimed target. It also explained the movement of silat which means one should 'sambut' (avoid, block or catch) first followed by counter attack towards the target or enemy.
- Belebat silat means to receive (sambut) strike followed by counter attack to the opponent. It also means the movements on how to plan sparring in early stage of fight.
- Tapak silat is a step pattern or floor plan that is used in silat to ease the step movements. It develops the silat exponent stances (kuda-kuda) and steps (langkah) in order to strike, to defend and to receive any strikes from opponent.
- The tapak silat is based on one or two legs position on the floor. Meanwhile, the step in silat means an activity that required a person to move his or her heel to walk or to move form one area to another area.
- The pattern of tapak silat in self defense moves is based on geometrical line such as straight line, horizontal line, triangle, rectangular, circle and star shapes. When a silat exponents master all of these step patterns, they can easily receive any fast fists, unlock any locking techniques such as wrist lock and release from any catching technique that are very popular in other martial arts such as aikido, jujitsu or judo.
- Combat sets meant to teach the application of techniques. Buah Silat or Buah Pukul is a self defense technique or the most important skill in silat that required one to receive the attack first (either by avoiding, blocking, or catching) followed by counter attack with fist to the opponent either using bare hand or weapon.
- Buah pukul can be done with two or more opponent in any silat training.
Tempur Seni Silat
- Tempur silat or silat combat is divided into two which are; Tempur Seni (the art of self defense combat) and Tempur Beladiri (the fast action of combat sparring). The main reason of this division is to emphasize the concept and meanings of two difference style in silat combat.
- Tempur seni emphasize more on ecstatic value of silat with specific do and don't rule. Tempur beladiri emphasize more on fast silat movements in order to fight with more than one opponent.
- The tempur seni combat consists of Tapak Empat (the silat movements in square pattern), Lilit (circling around the opponent) and Galah Panjang (marking the distance between each other).
- Tempur seni also used three types of strikes that based from traditional silat weapon system which are; Tikam (stabbing), Parang (chopping) and Tetak (hacking or notching).
- These strikes usually followed by seven receiving techniques which are; Tangkap (catching), Sentak (to pull at or out with a jerk), Kedu (to flex the arm down), Tindih (one on the top of the other), Sisip (to insert), Sagang (to be in silat alert position) and Potong (to counter attack).
- The silat exponent will learn the art of martial art fighting while practising all of these receiving techniques. It is better to practice these techniques with variety of opponent of different height, weight and size in order to understand the differences of strength and weakness levels.
Tempur Beladiri Silat
- An exercise meant to teach how moves can be deflected or used against the opponent in combat. It can also be used as sensitivity training or as safe preliminary practice for true sparring.
- In tempur beladiri, silat exponent will learn the unarmed self defense first before learns on how use weapon in advance level. This is important because silat exponent needs to master all the unarmed technique first in order to avoid any injuries in silat training. All the silat lessons will be given by the silat coach step-by-step for better understanding.
Seven Levels in Seni Gayung Fatani
In the level three, the practitioner wears a brown belt and is called Pesilat Perkasa (Second Rank Junior Silat Exponent). This terms derives its meaning from the fact that at this level, the exponent would spend a lot of time in the gelanggang or training ground doing whatever the silat instructor asks.
- Bunga Silat (fifteen movements)
- Jurus Silat (fifteen movements)
- Belebat Silat (elak or avoidance)
- Tapak Silat (empat or four)
- Buah Silat (selapis or one layer)
- Tempur Seni (buah seni selapis or the art of silat arts with one layer)
- Tempur Beladiri (elak berangkai or avoiding network )
- Technique: Avoidance
The practitioner wears a yellow belt and is called pesilat muda or young silat exponent because they now have some knowledge of silat but not yet enough to qualify as a full-fledged trainee.
- Bunga Silat (fifteen movements)
- Jurus Silat (fifteen movements)
- Belebat Silat (tangkis or block)
- Tapak Silat (tiga or three)
- Buah Silat (berangkai or continues)
- Tempur Seni (buah seni berlapis or the art of silat arts with continues movement)
- Tempur Beladiri (tangkis berlapis or blocking network )
- Technique: Blocking and repelling attacks
The practitioner now wears a green belt and is called a 'pesilat' or silat exponent because they have now experienced enough to be able to apply techniques in sparring matches.
- Bunga Silat (twenty movements)
- Jurus Silat (twenty movements)
- Belebat Silat (tangkap or catching)
- Tapak Silat (lingkar bulat or circle)
- Buah Silat (berlapis or more than one layers)
- Tempur Seni (rangkai berlapis or the art of silat arts network with with more than one layers)
- Tempur Beladiri (gelut berseli or alternate attack and defense )
- Technique: Avoidance, blocks, tangkapan (trapping or seizing) and felling an opponent
- Buah Silat used Tekong where the exponent is attacked by multiple unarmed assailants from different directions
At this stage, the pesilat wears a red belt and is called a pendekar muda or young warrior. Now adept at applying techniques, the exponent can face off any attack by any assailant and is qualified to teach. Before being recognized as a pendekar, the pendekar muda may receive a black stripe on their bengkung (waist sash) for each year they show active participation and constant improvement.
- Bunga Silat (Twenty movements)
- Jurus Silat (weapons)
- Belebat Silat (potong or secret techniques in Silat Melayu)
- Tapak Silat (lima or five)
- Buah Silat (senjata berseli or weaponry application between the silat exponents)
- Tempur Seni (gelut seni senjata or weaponary application between the silat exponents with continues movement)
- Tempur Beladiri (tempur dan gelut silat or combating application with alternating attack and defense application)
- Techniques: Avoidance, blocks, tangkapan, locks and armed combat (parang, kris, etc.)
The individual is given the title Pendekar, denoting a full-fledged warrior. This level is not easily attained as the grading is only held when a pendekar muda is deemed fit for it. In becoming a pendekar, the exponent has to create their own bunga silat, jurus silat and tapak silat movements which must not be similar to that of others. At this stage the warrior will be given the Silat knowledge that origins from the art of war from multiple aspects of knowledge, practice and traditional weapon skills system. The Malay warrior attitude is the same in Warrior's Attitude. The warrior also will be train to become silat guru to implement the self defense moves education to others. They are also exposed to science teaching, management, spiritual, technical and co-curriculum in purpose to strengthen community, religion, race and nation. During grading, they will have to face off armed attacks by multiple assailants from different directions to qualify.
- Bunga Silat (gerak seni or the arts of creating silat movements continuesly)
- Jurus Silat (with and without weapons jurus movements)
- Belebat Silat (aplikasi gabungan or the combination of silat application from level 1-7)
- Tapak Silat (kepelbagaian gabungan tapak or the variety and combination of floor movements to strike opponents)
- Buah Silat (with and without weapons application)
- Tempur Seni (silat melayu or the highest arts movements in Silat Melayu application)
- Tempur Beladiri (seni dan beladiri or combating application with the art and self defense of attack and defense application)
- Techniques: The art of war of Silat Melayu.
- Martabat Silat Warisan Negara, Keaslian Budaya Membina Bangsa PESAKA (2006) [Istilah Silat by Anuar Abd. Wahab]
- Anuar, A.W. (2007). Silat: The development history of traditional Malay silat and development of modern Silat Malaysia curriculum. Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor: Hizi Print Sdn Bhd
- "Lessons in Grace & Confidence", "Changed Children" & "Preserving Tradition" by Leong Siok Hui, TheStar Newspaper (13 August 2005)
- Anuar, A.W. (1992). Teknik dalam Seni Silat Melayu (Technique in Malay Silat). Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka
- Official Website of Pertubuhan Seni Gayung Fatani Malaysia (Pertubuhan Seni Gayung Fatani Malaysia)
- Silat Official website (Silat Coaching Program)
- Pusat Cemerlang Silat official website (English)
- Culture Silat (french)