||This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2010)|
|— State —|
|Kedah Darul Aman|
|Anthem: Allah Selamatkan Sultan Mahkota
(English:"God Save the Crowned Sultan")
|Royal capital||Anak Bukit|
|• Sultan||Sultan Abdul Halim|
|• Menteri Besar||Mukhriz Mahathir (UMNO)|
|• Total||9,500 km2 (3,700 sq mi)|
|• Density||199/km2 (520/sq mi)|
|Human Development Index|
|• HDI (2010)||0.670 (medium) (12th)|
05xxx to 09xxx
|Vehicle registration||K (Mainland Kedah)
KV (Langkawi Island)
|Accession into Federation of Malaya||1948|
Kedah (also known by its honorific, Darul Aman, or "Abode of Peace") is a state of Malaysia, located in the northwestern part of Peninsular Malaysia. The state covers a total area of over 9,000 km², and it consists of the mainland and Langkawi. The mainland has a relatively flat terrain, which is used to grow rice. Langkawi is an archipelago of islands, most of which are uninhabited. Kedah was called Kadaram (Tamil:காடாரம்) by Tamil people and Syburi (Thai: ไทรบุรี; RTGS: Sai Buri) by the Siamese when it was under their influence.
Kedah borders the state of Perlis and shares an international boundary with the Songkhla and Yala provinces of Thailand to the north. It also borders the state of Perak to the south and Penang to the southwest.
Archaeological evidence found in Bujang Valley reveals that a Hindu–Buddhist kingdom ruled ancient Kedah possibly as early as 110 A.D. The discovery of temples, jetty remains, iron smelting sites, and clay brick monuments dating back to 110 A.D shows that a maritime trading route with south Indian Tamil kingdoms was already established since that time. The discoveries in Bujang Valley also made the ancient Kedah as the oldest civilization of Southeast Asia.
Reference to ancient Kedah was first mentioned in a Tamil poem Paṭṭiṉappālai written at the end of 2nd century A.D. It described goods from Kadaram "heaped together in the broad streets" of Chola capital. Other than Kadaram, Kedah was known with different names at varying times in Indian literature; Kataha-Nagara (in Kaumudi Mahotsava drama), Anda-Kataha (in Agni Purana), Kataha-Dvipa (in Samarāiccakahā), and Kataha (in Kathasaritsagara). In the middle eastern literature, ancient Kedah was referred as Qilah by Ibn Khordadbeh in Kitāb al Masālik w’al Mamālik, Kalah-Bar by Soleiman Siraf & Abu Zaid al Hassan in Silsilat-al-Tawarikh (travels in Asia), and Kalah by Abu-Dulaf Misa'r Ibn Muhalhil in Al-Risalah al-thaniyah. The famous Tang Dynasty Buddhist monk, Yi Jing who visited Malay archipelago between 688-695, also mentioned about a kingdom known as Ka-Cha in the northern part of Malay peninsular, which according to him was 30 days sail from Bogha (Palembang), the capital of Sribogha (Srivijaya).
According to Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa or the Kedah Annals, Kedah was founded by a Hindu king named Merong Mahawangsa. According to the text further, the Sultanate of Kedah started in year 1136 when King Phra Ong Mahawangsa converted to Islam and adopted the name Sultan Mudzafar Shah.
In the 7th and 8th centuries, Kedah was under the loose control of Srivijaya,. In 1025, the city was conquered by Rajendra Chola, the Chola king from Coromandel in South India, who occupied it for some time. It later under Siam, until it was conquered by the Malay sultanate of Melaka in the 15th century. In the 17th century, Kedah was attacked by the Portuguese after their conquest of Melaka, and by Aceh. In the hope that Great Britain would protect what remained of Kedah from Siam, the sultan handed over Penang and then Province Wellesley to the British at the end of the 18th century. The Siamese nevertheless invaded Kedah in 1821, and it remained under Siamese control until transferred to the British by the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909.
In World War II, Kedah (along with Kelantan) was the first part of Malaya to be invaded by Japan. The Japanese returned Kedah to their Thai allies who had it renamed Syburi, but it returned to British rule after the end of the war. Kedah was a reluctant addition to the Federation of Malaya in 1948.
Since 1958, the hereditary Sultan of Kedah has been Tuanku Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah. The Kedah Sultanate began when the 9th Kedah Maharaja Derbar Raja AD) converted to Islam and changed his name to Sultan Mudzafar Shah I. Since then there have been 27 Sultans who ruled Kedah. The Menteri Besar (Chief Minister) is currently Datuk Seri Azizan Abdul Razak
The Pedu Lake is the largest man-made lake in the state.
Kedah's Constitution was promulgated by its Ruler in July 1950. The various provisions laid down in the Constitution include the role and powers of the Monarch, the State Parliament and the State's Civil Service.
The Sultan of Kedah is the constitutional ruler of the State. His position is hereditary and he holds office for life. The Ruler is the head of the religion of Islam in the State and the executive power of the state government is vested in him. The current Sultan is Sultan Abdul Halim of Kedah, who has reigned since 1958.
The State Executive Council, which along with the Sultan is Kedah's executive branch of government. It is composed of the Menteri Besar, who is its chairman and Kedah's head of government, and ten other members. The Menteri Besar and other members of the council are appointed by the Sultan of Kedah from members of the Dewan Undangan Negeri (State Assembly). The current Menteri Besar is Dato' Seri Azizan Abdul Razak, of the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (also referred to as Parti Islam Se-Malaysia or PAS).
List of Chief Ministers 
|Mohamad Sheriff bin Osman||1948–1954||UMNO of Barisan Nasional|
|Tunku Ismail bin Tunku Yahaya||1954–1959||UMNO of Barisan Nasional|
|Syed Omar bin Syed Abdullah Shahabuddin||1959–1967||UMNO of Barisan Nasional|
|Tun Dato' Seri Utama Syed Ahmad bin Syed Mahmud Shahabuddin||1967–1978||UMNO of Barisan Nasional|
|Syed Nahad bin Tun Syed Sheh Shahabuddin||1978–1985||UMNO of Barisan Nasional|
|Haji Osman bin Haji Aroff||1985–1996||UMNO of Barisan Nasional|
|Sanusi bin Junid||1996–1999||UMNO of Barisan Nasional|
|Syed Razak bin Syed Zain Barakhbah||1999–2005||UMNO of Barisan Nasional|
|Dato' Haji Mahdzir bin Khalid||2005–2008||UMNO of Barisan Nasional|
|Dato' Seri Azizan bin Abdul Razak||2008- 5 May 2013||PAS of Pakatan Rakyat|
|Datuk Paduka Mukhriz Tun Mahathir||6 May 2013-present||UMNO of Barisan Nasional|
Kedah State Assembly 
The state also has a legislative branch, called the State assembly. It is similar to the Parliament but is limited to making laws relating to the state. Its members are elected in elections which are usually held simultaneously with federal elections. The term of each state assembly member is limited to five years. The state assembly must be dissolved before or once it expires its term for a fresh election to elect its members.
Administrative divisions 
Modern Kedah is divided into 12 administrative districts or "daerah" in Malay. These 12 districts, are further divided into administrative Municipal councils (Majlis Bandaraya/Perbandaran and Daerah):
- Majlis Daerah Baling (MDB)
- Majlis Daerah Bandar Baharu (MDBB)
- Majlis Bandaraya Alor Setar (MBAS)
- Majlis Perbandaran Sungai Petani (MPSPK)
- Majlis Daerah Kubang Pasu (MDKP)
- Majlis Perbandaran Kulim (MPK)
- Pihak Berkuasa Tempatan Perindustrian Hi-Tech Kulim (HI-TECH Kulim)
- Majlis Perbandaran Langkawi Bandaraya Pelancongan (MPLBP)
- Majlis Daerah Padang Terap (MDPT)
- Majlis Daerah Pendang (MDP)
- Majlis Bandaraya Alor Setar (MBAS)
- Majlis Daerah Sik (MDS)
- Majlis Daerah Yan (MDY)
Kedah is considered the "rice bowl" (Malay: Jelapang Padi) of Malaysia, accounting for one about a half of Malaysia's total production of rice. In 2008, the state government banned the conversion of padi fields to housing and industrial lots to protect the rice industry.
Tourism, particularly on the island of Langkawi is of growing importance.
More recently, Kedah has forged its economy towards the automotive and aerospace industries with Modenas and Asian Composites setting up bases here. One of the main advantages is the low labour costs and the infrastructure in place with the North-South Expressway and the Penang International Airport close by. In 1996, the Kulim Hi-Tech Park (KHTP) was officially opened as the first high technology industrial park in Malaysia. The Park comprises a total land area of approximately 14.5 square kilometres (5.6 mi²).
According to the Ninth Malaysia Plan, this economic area is part of the Northern Corridor Economic Region (NCER). The Northern Corridor Economic Region is one of three development regions formed in Peninsular Malaysia; other development regions being the Iskandar Malaysia (or South Johor Economic Region) and the East Coast Development Region.
Public universities and colleges 
The state has a campus of Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM), which is located in Bandar Baru Sintok. It was formally incorporated on 16 February 1984. The University was established with the specific mission of providing a leadership role for management education in the country. The academic establishments in UUM include College of Business (COB), College of Law, Government and International Studies (COLGIS) and College of Arts and Sciences (CAS).
Kedah also has several public universities and colleges such as Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) in Merbok, the Malaysian Spanish Institute of Universiti Kuala Lumpur (UniKL MSI) and the Polytechnic Institute of Sultanah Bahiyah (PSB) in Kulim, the Asian Institute of Medicine, Science and Technology (AIMST University) in Bedong, Kolej Universiti Insaniah (KUIN) in Mergong and the Polytechnic Institute of Sultan Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah (POLIMAS) in Jitra.
There are 2 teacher training institution in Kedah, Institut Pendidikan Guru Kampus Sultan Abdul Halim (IPGKSAH) in Sungai Petani and Institut Pendidikan Guru Kampus Darul Aman (IPGKDA) in Bandar Darulaman that are set up by the government to provide teaching courses for trainee teachers.
Private universities and colleges 
Private universities and colleges that are located in Kedah include the Open University of Malaysia (OUM) Regional Learning Center for the state of Kedah and Perlis at Sungai Petani, the Albukhary International University in Alor Setar, Pusat Bahasa Titian Jaya the PTPL College and the Cosmopoint College.
Technical institutes 
Kedah houses three technical institutes that are affiliated with MARA, that is Institut Kemahiran MARA Sungai Petani, Institut Kemahiran MARA Alor Setar and Institut Kemahiran MARA Sik.
Boarding schools 
Private and Public Schools 
Consists of several private and public primary school or secondary school. Public secondary school such as SMK Taman Jelutong, Keat Hwa Secondary School, Convent Secondary School (Formerly known as St. Nicholas Convent Secondary School), Kolej Sultan Abdul Hamid,Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Sultan Badlishah, Sin Min Secondary School, Chio Min Secondary School,SMK Sultanah Asma, SMK Convent Father Barre, SMK Khir Johari, SMK Aman Jaya, SMK Bedong, SMK Bakar Arang, SMK Darulaman, SMK Ibrahim, SMK Jitra, SMK Mahsuri, SMK Tunku Panglima Besar, Keat Hwa Secondary School and etc. Private secondary school such as Keat Hwa High School, Sin Min High School and SM Sin Min.
Tourism is mainly concentrated on Langkawi Island, the largest island in the archipelago. There are some places of interest on the mainland as well.
Kedah Mainland 
- Balai Nobat
- Bukit Kayu Hitam
- Balai Seni Negeri
- Batu Hampar Waterfall
- Junjong Waterfall
- Kota Kuala Kedah
- Lata Mengkuang Waterfall
- Lembah Bujang Archaeological Park
- Rumah Merdeka]
- Seri Perigi Waterfall
- Sungai Merbok Recreation Park
- Sungai Sedim Tree Top Walk
- Ulu Muda Eco Park
- Ulu Paip Recreational Forest]
- Hutan Paya Laut]
- Ulu Legong Hot Springs
- Titi Hayun Waterfall
- Gunung Jerai
The Langkawi International Airport is located at Padang Matsirat and it is also considered a tourist attraction as the Langkawi International Maritime and Aerospace Exhibition takes place every 2 years near the airport. The airport handled almost 1.2 million passengers and over 41,000 aircraft movements in 2008. It serves as the primary gateway into Langkawi.
- James C. Scott, Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance (1985)
See also 
- Proclamation of Malaysia
- 2005 Malaysian haze
- Kedah FA
- Breakdown of State Seats Representatives, elected in 2008
- "Laporan Kiraan Permulaan 2010". Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia. p. 27. Archived from the original on 2010-12-27. Retrieved 2011-01-24.
- "Laporan Kiraan Permulaan 2010". Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia. p. iv. Archived from the original on 2010-12-27. Retrieved 2011-01-24.
- Cyril Skinner,The Civil War in Kelantan in 1839, Kuala Lumpur: Monographs of the Malaysian Branch, Royal Asiatic Society, 1965.
- New interest in an older Lembah Bujang, 2010/07/25
- Asia Research News - USM discovers earliest civilisation in Southeast Asia
- Sabrizain - Kadaram and Kataha
- R.O Winstedt - History of Kedah - Extracted from No. 81 Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (SBRAS), March 1920
- I-Tsing (2005). A Record of the Buddhist Religion As Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago (A.D. 671-695). Asian Educational Services. pp. xl – xli. ISBN 978-81-206-1622-6.
- "Early Malay kingdoms". Sabrizain.org. Retrieved 2010-06-21.
- A history of Malaya, Richard Winstedt, Marican, 1962, p. 36
- R. Bonney, Kedah 1771–1821: The Search for Security and Independence (1971), Ch. VII.
- "2010 Population and Housing Census of Malaysia". Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Retrieved 2012-06-17. p. 13
- "Langkawi given geopark status". The Star Online. June 8, 2007. Retrieved 2009-12-05.
||Perlis||Songkhla Province, Thailand||Yala Province, Thailand|
|Straits of Malacca|