Sextus Julius Africanus
Sextus Julius Africanus (c.160 – c.240) was a Christian traveller and historian of the late 2nd and early 3rd century AD. He is important chiefly because of his influence on Eusebius, on all the later writers of Church history among the Fathers, and on the whole Greek school of chroniclers.
Suidas claims Julius was an "Libyan philosopher", while Gelzer considers him of Roman descent. Julius called himself a native of Jerusalem – which some scholars consider his birthplace – and lived at the neighbouring Emmaus. His chronicle indicate his familiarity with the topography of historic Palestine.
Little of Julius's life is known and all dates are uncertain. One tradition places him under the Emperor Gordianus III (238–244), others mentions him under Severus Alexander (222–235). He appears to have known Abgar VIII, the Christian King of Edessa (176–213).
Julius may have served under Septimius Severus against the Osrhoenians in 195. He went on an embassy to the emperor Severus Alexander to ask for the restoration of Emmaus, which had fallen into ruins. His mission succeeded, and Emmaus was henceforward known as Nicopolis.
Julius traveled to Greece and Rome and went to Alexandria to study, attracted by the fame of its catechetical school, possibly about the year 215. He knew Greek (in which language he wrote), Latin, and Hebrew. He was at one time a soldier and had been a pagan; he wrote all his works as a Christian.
Whether Julius Africanus was a layman or a cleric remains controversial. Tillemont argued from Julius' addressing the priest Origen as "dear brother" that Julius must have been a priest himself but Gelzer points out that such an argument is inconclusive. Statements calling him a bishop only appear in the fourth century.
He wrote a history of the world (Chronographiai, in five books) from Creation to the year AD 221, covering, according to his computation, 5723 years. He calculated the period between Creation and Jesus as 5500 years, placing the Incarnation on the first day of AM 5501 (our modern March 25 1 BC), according to Venance Grumel, La Chronologie (1958). This method of reckoning led to several Creation eras being used in the Greek Eastern Mediterranean, which all placed Creation within one decade of 5500 BC.
The history, which had an apologetic aim, is no longer extant, but copious extracts from it are to be found in the Chronicon of Eusebius, who used it extensively in compiling the early episcopal lists. There are also fragments in George Syncellus, Cedrenus and the Chronicon Paschale. Eusebius gives some extracts from his letter to one Aristides, reconciling the apparent discrepancy between Matthew and Luke in the genealogy of Christ by a reference to the Jewish law of Levirate marriage, which compelled a man to marry the widow of his deceased brother, if the latter died without issue. His terse and pertinent letter to Origen impugning the authority of the part of the Book of Daniel that tells the story of Susanna, and Origen's wordy and uncritical answer, are both extant.
The ascription to Africanus of an encyclopaedic work entitled Kestoi (Κέστος "embroidered"), treating of agriculture, natural history, military science, etc., has been disputed on account of its secular and often credulous character. August Neander suggested that it was written by Africanus before he had devoted himself to religious subjects. A fragment of the Kestoi was found in the Oxyrhynchus papyri. According to the New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, the Kestoi "appears to have been intended as a sort of encyclopedia of the material sciences with the cognate mathematical and technical branches, but to have contained a large proportion of merely curious, trifling, or miraculous matters, on which account the authorship of Julius has been questioned. Among the parts published are sections on agriculture, liturgiology, tactics, and medicine (including veterinary practise)."
Only portions of his writings have been preserved which are both interesting and valuable as early data. Concerning the prophecy of Daniel 8, he refers to the standard interpretation of the "ram" and the "he-goat" as symbolizing Persia and Greece. Then he interprets the 2300 days as representing 2300 months or 185 years, which he applied to the time from the capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar to the 20th year of Artaxerxes. He seems to have been alone in this interpretation.
Africanus begins the seventy weeks of Daniel 9 during the twentieth year of Artaxerxes, in Olympiad 83, year 4, (444 B.C.) and ends the period in Olympiad 202, year 2 (31 A.D.) for a total of 475 solar years inclusive. He reconciles the 475 solar years as equivalent to 490 uncorrected lunar years.
- Gelzer 1898, pp. 4f.
- Martin Wallraff (ed.), Iulius Africanus: Chronographiae. The Extant Fragments, reviewed by Hagith Sivan (Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
- Gelzer 1898, p. 10.
- Gelzer 1898, p. 11.
- Louis-Sébastien Le Nain de Tillemont, Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire ecclésiastique, III, Paris, 1693, 254
- Gelzer 1898, p. 9.
- Chisholm 1911 cites: Hist. Ecc. i. 7; vi. 31
- Chisholm 1911.
- Chisholm 1911 cites: Grenfell and Hunt, iii. 36 ff.
- Froom 1950, pp. 279-281.
- "Julius Africanus". Catholic Encyclopedia 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1910.
- (German) Gelzer, H. (1898). Sextus Julius Africanus und die Byzantinische Chronographie. Leipzig.
- (German) Wallraff, M.; Mecella, L. (hg) (2009). Die Kestoi des Julius Africanus und ihre Überlieferung. Berlin and New York: de Gruyter. 395 S. (Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur, 165).
- Habas (Rubin), E. (1994). "The Jewish Origin of Julius Africanus". JJS 45: 86–91.
- Froom, LeRoy (1950). The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers (DjVu and PDF) 1.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Africanus, Sextus Julius". Encyclopædia Britannica 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.