Shinar

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Shinar (/ˈʃ.nɑr/;[1] Hebrew שִׁנְעָר Šinʻar, Septuagint Σεννααρ Sennaar) is a biblical geographical locale of uncertain boundaries in Mesopotamia. The name may be a corruption of Hebrew Shene neharot ("two rivers"), Hebrew Shene arim ("two cities"),[2] or Akkadian Sumeru.

Hebrew Bible[edit]

The name Shinar occurs eight times in the Hebrew Bible, in which it refers to Babylonia.[3] This location of Shinar is evident from its description as encompassing both Babel (Babylon) (in northern Babylonia) and Erech (Uruk) (in southern Babylonia).[3] In the Book of Genesis 10:10, the beginning of Nimrod's kingdom is said to have been "Babel [Babylon], and Erech [Uruk], and Akkad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar." Verse 11:2 states that Shinar enclosed the plain that became the site of the Tower of Babel after the Great Flood. After the Flood, the sons of Shem, Ham, and Japheth, had stayed first in the highlands of Armenia, and then migrated to Shinar.[4]

In Genesis 14:1,9, King Amraphel rules Shinar. Shinar is further mentioned in Joshua 7:21; Isaiah 11:11; Daniel 1:2; and Zechariah 5:11, as a general synonym for Babylonia.

Jubilees[edit]

Jubilees 9:3 allots Shinar (or, in the Ethiopic text, Sadna Sena`or) to Ashur, son of Shem. Jubilees 10:20 states that the Tower of Babel was built with bitumen from the sea of Shinar. David Rohl theorized that the Tower was actually located in Eridu, which was once located on the Persian Gulf, where there are ruins of a massive, ancient ziggurat worked from bitumen.[5]

Other possible attestations[edit]

Sayce identified Shinar as cognate with the following names: Sangara/Sangar mentioned in the context of the Asiatic conquests of Thutmose III (15th century BCE); Sanhar/Sankhar of the Amarna letters (14th century BCE); the Greeks's Singara; and modern Sinjar, in Upper Mesopotamia, near the Khabur River.[3][6] Accordingly, he proposed that Shinar was in Upper Mesopotamia, but acknowledged that the Bible gives important evidence that it was in the south.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ LDS.org: "Book of Mormon Pronunciation Guide" (retrieved 2012-02-25), IPA-ified from «shī´när»
  2. ^ The New York Review, St Joseph's Seminary, 1907, p. 205.
  3. ^ a b c Jewish Encyclopedia (1906): Shinar
  4. ^ Vuibert, Ancient History, 25.
  5. ^ Rohl, David, Legends: The Genesis of Civilization (1998) and The Lost Testament (2002)
  6. ^ a b Sayce, Archibald Henry (1895). Patriarchal Palestine, pp. 67-68.